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RAPID

PROTOTYPING
TECHNOLOGY
Presented by:
ANIL VARGHESE MANGALAN
DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING
DEPT OF MECHANICAL ENGG
NIT SILCHAR

Introduction
Rapid Prototyping Technology is a group
of manufacturing processes that enable
the direct physical realization of 3D
computer models.
This technology converts the 3D
computer data provided by a dedicated
file format directly to a physical model,
layer by layer with a high degree of
accuracy.
The presentation gives an overview on
existing major RP techniques and their
applications in engineering fields
Fig 1: Flying sculpture called the little shining
man created using rapid prototyping technique.
Design & Manufacturing, NIT Silchar
08-10-2013

RPT and Rapid Manufacturing (RM)


offers great potential for producing
models and parts.
By this reliability of product can be
increased, investment of time and money
is less risky.
RPT can automatically construct
physical models CAD data.
Rapid prototyping is an "additive"
process, combining layers of paper, wax,
or plastic to create a solid object.
In contrast, most machining processes
are "subtractive" processes that remove
material from a solid block.
Most prototypes require from one to
seventy-two hours.

Fig 2: Rotors made using rapid prototyping techniques

Design & Manufacturing, NIT Silchar


08-10-2013

The Basic Process


Create a CAD model of the design
# Object to be built is modelled using CAD software.
# Solid modellers like ProE yield better results.
# Existing CAD file may also be used
Convert the CAD model to STL (Standard Tessellation Language)
format
# STL format is the standard of rapid prototyping industry.
# This format represent 3D surface as an assembly of planar triangles and
describes only surface geometry. (without any representation of colour,
texture etc.)
Slice the STL file into thin cross-sectional layers
# Several programmes are available for this.
# STL models are sliced into a number of layers (.01mm to .7mm).
# Orientation size and location are adjusted using the software.
Design & Manufacturing, NIT Silchar
08-10-2013

Construct the model one layer atop another


# RP machine builds one layer at a time from polymers, paper, or powdered
metal.
# Fairly autonomous needing little human intervention.
Clean and finish the model
# Post processing step.
# Prototype may require minor cleaning and surface treatment.

Design & Manufacturing, NIT Silchar


08-10-2013

Rapid Prototyping Techniques


Most commercially available rapid prototyping machines use one
of the five techniques

Stereolithography (SL or SLA)

Laminated object manufacturing

Selective Laser Sintering

Fused deposition modeling

Solid Ground Curing

3D ink jet printing

Design & Manufacturing, NIT Silchar


08-10-2013

Fig 3: SL Machine

Stereolithography (SL or SLA)


Builds 3D model from liquid photo sensitive polymers when exposed to UV rays.
Model is built upon a platform situated just below the surface of liquid epoxy or
acrylate resin.
A low power highly focused UV laser traces out the first layer, solidifying model
cross section.
An elevator incrementally lowers the platform into the liquid polymer.
Process is repeated until prototype is complete.
Model is the placed in an UV oven for complete curing.

Design & Manufacturing, NIT Silchar


08-10-2013

Fig 4: Stereolithography

Laminated Object Manufacturing

Layer of adhesive coated sheet materials are bonded to form a prototype.


Paper laminated with heat activated glue is rolled up on spools.
Heated roller applies pressure to bond the paper to the base.
Feeder/collector mechanism advances paper.
Laser cuts the outline of first layer.
Platform is lowered and fresh material is advanced.
Process is repeated and a roller bonds the layers.

Design & Manufacturing, NIT Silchar


08-10-2013

Fig 5: Laminated Object Manufacturing

Selective Laser Sintering


Uses laser beam to selectively fuse powdered materials such as nylon,
elastomer or metal into a solid object.
Parts are built on a platform which sits below the surface in a bin of heat
fusible powder.
Laser traces the pattern of first layer, sintering it together.
Then platform is lowered, powder is reapplied and process is repeated.

Design & Manufacturing, NIT Silchar


08-10-2013

Fig 6: Selective Laser Sintering

Fused Deposition Modelling


Filaments of heated thermoplastics are extruded from a tip that moves in
the platform to form the first layer.
The platform is maintained at a lower temperature, so that the thermoplastic
quickly hardens.
After the platform lowers, the extrusion head deposits a second layer upon
the first.

Design & Manufacturing, NIT Silchar


08-10-2013

Fig 7: Fused Deposition Modelling

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Solid Ground Curing (SGC)


Similar to stereolithography in that both use ultraviolet light to selectively
harden photosensitive polymers. Unlike SLA, SGC cures an entire layer at a
time.
First, photosensitive resin is sprayed on the build platform.
The machine develops a photo mask (like a stencil) of the layer to be built. This
photo mask is printed on a glass plate above the build platform using an
electrostatic process.
The mask is then exposed to UV light, which only passes through the
transparent portions of the mask to selectively harden the shape of the current
layer.
After the layer is cured, the machine vacuums up the excess liquid resin.
The top surface is milled flat, and then the process repeats to build the next
layer.
When the part is complete, it must be de-waxed by immersing it in a solvent
bath.
Design & Manufacturing, NIT Silchar
08-10-2013

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Fig 8: Solid Ground Curing

Design & Manufacturing, NIT Silchar


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3-D Ink Jet Printing


Parts are built upon a platform situated in a
bin full of powder material.
An ink-jet printing head selectively
deposits or "prints" a binder fluid to fuse
the powder together in the desired areas.
Unbound powder remains to support the
part.
The platform is lowered, more powder
added and levelled, and the process
repeated.
Finished parts can be infiltrated with wax,
glue, or other sealants to improve durability
and surface finish.
Typical layer thicknesses are on the order
of 0.1 mm.
This process is very fast, and produces
parts with a slightly grainy surface.
There are also other different types of 3D
printing available in the market which gives
very good accuracy.

Fig 9: 3-D Ink Jet Printing

Design & Manufacturing, NIT Silchar


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Applications of Rapid Prototyping


Engineering
Made use in space stations and space shuttles.
Planning to install an RP machine in ISS for making spare parts.
Functional parts in F1 racing cars and fighter jets like F-18.
Medical Applications
Custom-fit, clear plastic aligners (braces) can be produced.
Used in hearing aids to make custom fit shells.
Arts and Archaeology
Selective Laser Sintering with marble powders can help to restore or duplicate
ancient statues.
Rapid Tooling
Tools are made by CNC-machining, electro-discharge machining, or by hand.
All are expensive and time consuming.
Manufacturers would like to incorporate rapid prototyping techniques to speed
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the process.
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Conclusion
Modern CNC machines have high removal rates which helps in fast
machining.
For certain applications machining will continue to be a useful
manufacturing process.
One should regard RPT as one more option in the toolkit for
manufacturing parts.
Rapid prototyping will not make machining obsolete, but rather
complement it.

Design & Manufacturing, NIT Silchar


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References
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rapid_prototyping
www.protosystech.com/rapid-prototyping.htm
www.jharper.demon.co.uk/rptc01.htm
P.M. Pandey, N.V Reddy, S. G. Dhande, Slicing
procedure in layer manufacturing, Rapid prototyping
journal 9(5), 2003, page 274 to 288.

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THANK YOU

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