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Vector Control

AHB 3342

Vector
An organism that act as biological or
mechanical transporter for a
causative agent to be transferred
from one to another.

2 types of vectors
Biological vector: An organism where the
causative agent undegoes its partial
development in its and being act as
transporter to transfer the pathogen to a
new host.
Example: Mosquito.
Mechanical vector: An organism that act as
transporter only for a pathogen to be
transfered to a new host.
Example: Fly

Principles of vector
control
1.Environmental control: the best
approach as the results are likely to be
permanent.
2.Chemical control
3.Biological control
4.Genetic control
5.Newer methods like insect growth
regulators, chemosterilents, pheromones

Integrated Vector Management


IVM is a rational decision-making process for
the optimal use of resources for vector
control
Or
utilization of all appropriate technological
and management techniques to bring out an
effective degree of vector suppression in a
cost effective manner and also to avoid the
overuse of one of the methods

Integrated vector management


approach
No single method is likely to provide a solution in
all situations. The present trend is to adapt a IVM
approach.

Vector control approach combining two or more


methods with a view to obtain maximum results
with minimum efforts.
Selection of methods is not possible without
detailed field information on the ecology,
bionomics of vectors, role in disease transmission.
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IVM attributes
1)Cost-effectiveness
2) Intersectoral action
3)Regulatory and operational
measures 4)Subsidiarity
5) [Evidence-based] decision-making
6) Sustainability [and resilience]

Selection criteria for vector


control measures
1. Effectiveness.
2. Safety.
3. Simplicity of use- indications,
contraindications, skills, difficulties in
using.
4. Cost
5. Time and effort
6. Type of benefit.
7. Social acceptability- local context.
8. Support requirements.
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Evolution of the integrated vector


control
Vector control has been a part of malaria control
activities since the early 20 th century.
During the pre-DDT era, reduction of vector
mosquitoes largely relied on larviciding &
environmental management of breeding habitats.
1950s- DDT and other insecticides were extensively
used.
1970s, development of insecticide resistance, poor
human acceptance and environmental concerns
against the use of insecticides.
This led to a rethinking in vector control strategies.
1980s, WHO proposed an Integrated Vector Control
(IVC) strategy based on the principles of Integrated
Pest Management in agriculture.
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Integrated vector control approach for


mosquito

Mosquito Control
Measures
Anti larval
Anti adult
measur
measur
es
es
1. Environment 1. Space
al control
sprays
2. Chemical
control

2. Residual
sprays

3. Biological
control

3.

Protection
against
mosquito
1.
bites
Mosquito
nets

Legislat
ive
control
Civic
laws

2. Screening
3. Repellents

Genetic
control
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Anti-larval measures
Environmental control
The most important step in reducing the number of
mosquitoes
1.Elimination of breeding places (source reduction)
like,
Filling and leveling
Drainage of breeding places
Water management
2.Proper disposal of refuse other wastes.
3.Cleanliness in and around the houses .
Community involvement & multisectoral
coordination

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Chemical Control
Larvicide

Formulation

Duration

Petroleum oil- Diesel oil and


Larvicidal oil

Suspension

1-2
weeks

Paris green

Granules

2 weeks

Organophosphorus compounds
Abate
Emulsifiable
Malathion
conc
Fenthion
Emulsifiable
Chlorpyrifos
conc
Emulsifiable
conc
EC,
Suspension
Insect growth regulatorsDiflubenzuron, Methoprene,
Pyriproxyfen
Bacterial LarvicidesBacillus thuringiensis H-14
B. Sphaericus

2-11
weeks
1-3
weeks
12weeks
2-4
weeks

Suspension/
Granules

4-8
weeks

EC/ Granules

1-2
weeks

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Highly toxic to insect larvae or pupae, interfering with


development into adults. Used in large scales in USA..

Costly & have restricted availability -not used in India.

Particularly useful if insects have developed resistance


to insecticides or because of their environmental effect.

Safe to human beings and environment.

1. Juvenile hormone analogues: prevent development of


larvae into pupa or pupae into adult. Ex. Methoprene
2. Chitin synthesis inhibitors: interfere with moulting
process, killing larvae when they moult. Act more rapidly.
Ex. Diflubenzuron and Triflumoron.

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Expanded form of polystyrene granules - available


commercially with diameter ranging from 0.6 to 2.5
mm.
Increased by boiling.
They do not decay and remain floating for years.
Spread on surface of water to form floating layer. A
layer of 1-2 cm is sufficient if it covers the surface.
Easily blown or washed away- only sites where
water remains confined -wells.
Used safe in drinking water

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Biological Control

Natural enemies into the environment-includes


Insects, Viruses, Bacteria, Protozoa, Fungi and
Fish.

Only

two

employed.

of

them

They

are

have

become

Larvivorous

widely

fish

and

Biolarvicides.

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1.Larvivorous fish
Feed on mosquito larvae.
Easy, practical, cheap; they have no food value.
They should have the following characteristics
Preference for mosquito larvae over other types
of food
Small size
High reproduction rate
Tolerance to pollution, temperature fluctuation &
transportation.
Two species are widely usedGambusia - clean water, tolerate wide range of
temperature, pH water salinities.
Guppy- Polluted water, cannot <10 degree C.
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Useful in ornamental tanks, wells, Garden ponds, fountains,


swimming pools, large water collection.
Approximately 5 fish per sq.m of water surface.
Advantages
a. Long term effective control measure.
b. Cost effective.
c. Environmentally safe.
d. Controls variety of mosquito species.
Disadvantages
a. Effective when large numbers eventually establish themselves.
b. takes 1-2 months; not suitable - quick anti larval measures are
needed.
c. less effective in waters with much vegetation or floating
garbage.
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Bacteria for the control of mosquito larvae.


Bacillus thuringiensis
H 14
and Bacillus
sphaericus.
Available as wettable powder and granules which
contain bacteria, spores and toxic crystals.
Safe to environment , human being and animals
but are expensive.
Bacillus thuringiensis H 14
Gram positive, spore forming bacteria which is
specifically acts against mosquito larvae.
Produces endotoxin which after ingestion causes
gut paralysis & leakage of contents into body
cavity leading to death.

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It is applied at 0.5 gm/sq.m


250gm of B. thuringiensis is mixed with 10 L of water
to make 2.5% suspension & sprayed at 1L over 50
sq.m every 2 weeks.
Bacillus sphaericus
It also produces toxin.
It is more effective in polluted water - suitable for
treatment of breeding sites of Culex.
500gm of B. sphaericus with 10 L of water to make 5%
suspension & it is sprayed at 1 L over 50 sq.m. every 3
weeks.
Others BiolarvicidesFungi- Coelomyces, Culicinomyces,
Nematodes Romanomermis cluicivorax and R. iyengari.

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Space sprays
Space sprays are those where the insecticidal
formulations is sprayed into the atmosphere
in the form of mist or fog.
1. Thermal fog.
2. ULV cold aerosols.
Done where immediate results are needed
like during outbreak of disease to bring down
mosquito population drastically.
Exophillic vector species.

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Space sprays (contd)


Sl
.
n
o

Name of
Insecticide

Pyrethru 2.0%
m extract extract

2.

Technical 5 parts of Vehicle


mounted
Malathion tech.

Deltamet
hrin
1.25ULV

Formulati Preparation of
on
formulation

1:19 i.e., 1
part of 20%
pyrethrum
extract in 19
parts of
kerosene

Malathio
n in 95
parts of
Diesel oil

thermal
fogging
machine
Speed of
vehicle 6
km/hour

1 litre in
199 litre
Diesel

Thermal
fogging
machine

Equipment
used

Remarks

Flit pump or
hand operated
fogging
machine

Used for
indoor
spray

Outdoor
thermal
fogging

Used for
outdoor
spray

Outdoor
thermal
fogging

Used for
outdoor
spray 21

Advantages of space sprays


Immediate effect - suitable for control of disease
outbreak.
Less insecticide is required for one application.
Kills exophillic species of mosquito.
Disadvantages of Space sprays
Effect lasts for shorter period- repeated at least once a
week.
The cost of equipment, operational and maintenance high;
Needs specially trained staff for maintenance and repair.
May cause pollution.
Problems with acceptability.
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Indoor Residual Sprays


Application of insecticides to surfaces so that the
insecticide particles remain on the surface in the
form, size and quantity suitable for insects to pick
up on contact and sufficient to exert a lethal
effect over a long period.
Endophillic species.

Knapsack
sprayer

Compression pneumatic
sprayer

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Indoor Residual Sprays


Sl. Name of the insecticide
No
.

Dosage

Residual effect in
weeks

DDT 50% wp

1 gm

BHC 50% wp

200 mg

68

Malathion 25% wp

2 gm

68

Deltamethrin 2.5% wp 20 mg

10 -12

Alpha Cyperthrin 5.0% 25 mg


wp

10 -12

Cyfluthrin 10% wp

25 mg

10 -12

Lamdadcyhalothrin
10% wp

25 mg

10 -12

Fenitrothion 40% wp

1 gm

10 -12

68

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1. May leave visible deposits on walls .


2. Non acceptability.
3. Painting or re-plastering of walls after application
reduces or
eliminates efficacy of insecticides.
4. People may be reluctant to allow stranger into
their houses.

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Methods such as
sterile male technique
Cytoplasmic incompatability
Chromosomal translocations
Sex distortion
Gene replacement

Limitations:
1. Lack of mating competitiveness released males.
2. Immigration of fertile females from regions close
to the release sites.

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Reallocation or introduction of cattle or domestic


animals

between settlements and mosquito

breeding i.e. ring of cattle sheds on the outskirts


of a village with houses in the center.

Many mosquito prefer animal blood than human


blood and hence decreases biting of human and
transmission of disease.

In Japan it is proved to be effective against Culex.

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a. Mosquito Nets
Mosquito bite during sleep. They also protect against
other creatures like spiders, cockroaches, lizards and rats.
Best pattern is rectangular net.
Size of the openings in the net is should not exceed
0.0475 inch in any diameter. The number of holes in one
square inch is usually 150.
Disadvantages of Untreated Nets
1. Mosquito can feed when body makes contact with the net.
2. Hungry mosquito wait on or near the net until net is
opened.
3. After failing to get through the net Mosquito are diverted
to unprotected people sleeping nearby.

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Insecticides Treated bed Nets

Provide better and effective protection by not


only preventing mosquito bites & also killing
them.
They are prepared by soaking the net in
insecticidal solution & dried.
Nylon nets are preferred - more durable,
insecticide stays longer duration and quicker in
drying after impregnation.
Synthetic
Pyrethroids
are
used
for
impregnation.
Permethrin,Deltamethrin,
Cyfluthrin and Lambdacyhalothrin are used.

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b. Repellents
Mainly used for application on exposed parts of
skin.
They act by preventing human-insect contact and
do not knock down or kill.
Chief advantage is short duration of protection.
Useful for Plantation workers, Army people,
Labors who work outdoor at night and Travelers.
N-N-Diethyl-3-toluamide
(DEET),indalone,
dimethyl pthalate, dimethyl carbate.
DEET is best available product; effect last for 4-6
hours. on application.
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Personal Prophylaxis(contd)
c. Screening- Screening

of buildings with zinc,

aluminum, plastic or bronze having 16 meshes to


the inch is recommended.
d. Protective clothing.
d. Others- Mosquito hitting swatter, use of fan at high
speed, repellents.

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Personal Prophylaxis(contd)
Insecticide Vaporizers

Protect against mosquito and biting flies by,


1. Irritating and disturbing them after contact and
preventing them from biting and also preventing
them entering room.
2. Paralyzing or killing them.

Coils, mats, liquid vaporizers and aerosols/sprayTransfluthrin,

Legislative control
Use of laws to prevent / reduce propagation and
spread of vectors is an effective means of vector
management, through stringent approach.
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Intermittent
irrigation
Water level
management
Land filling
Channelling
Source
Draining
reducti

Exotic natural
enemies
Larvivorous fish
Microbial agents
Biologi
cal

Insect
growth
regulators
Adulticides
Larvicides

Chemic
al

reducti
on

IVC

Personal
Protectio
n

Bed nets and


repellents

Health
Educati
on

Community
School
education
TV
Mass media

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Key elements of an IVC Strategy


1. Advocacy, social mobilization and legislation
Promotion and inclusion of IVC principles.
Empowerment of communities for sustainability.
Establishment or strengthening - regulatory &
legislative control for public health.
2. Collaboration within the health sector and
other sectors:
Agriculture and agriculture development projects.

Urban sector;

Industrial development;

Infrastructure development projects;

Water resources development projects;

Housing projects;
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3. Integrated approach
IRS in high risk areas and in epidemic situations based
on vector behavior and community acceptance.
Use of insecticide-treated nets/long-lasting insecticidal
nets and other personal protection methods.
Environmental management.
Biological control.
4. Evidence-based decision making
IVC strategy requires assessment of the vector control
needs based on the local factors.
Demands
efficient
surveillance/
information
management system that highlights targets for vector
control interventions.
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5. Operational and implementation research


Strong operational and implementation research
support for development of new and modified tools
6. Capacity building
expertise at the central, as well as peripheral levels.
developing tools and guidelines in local languages
and training of personnel for vector control.
7.Monitoring and evaluation
indicators as per the local requirements and targets
set.
Inputs, costs & outcome of different interventions,
when used singly or in combination & simultaneously
or consecutively in a defined area, must be
monitored.
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