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Sampling

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Distributions

complete enumeration, or census method

The process of selecting a sample or a portion of elements from a

population or a process using a specific method is called sampling

Statisticians use the word population to refer not only to people but to all

items that have been chosen for study

Statisticians use the word sample to describe a portion chosen from the

population

Mathematically, we can describe samples and populations by using

measures such as the mean, median, mode, Standard deviation etc.

When these terms describe the characteristic of a sample, they are called

Statistics

When they describe the characteristics of a population, they are called

parameters.

parameter is a characteristic of a population.

set of people for interviews to estimate the proportion of votes

that each candidate may get from the population of votes

sample mean for estimating population average amount.

Any statistical inference based on sample statistics may not

always be correct be correct because such results may not

truly estimate population features. This error is referred to as

sampling error because as compared to results obtained by

one-to-one analysis of members of a population; the sample

statistics may provide a different estimate of the population

characteristic.

Whenever a sample is drawn, by definition, only that part of

the population that is included in the sample is measured, and

is used to represent the entire population.

from those members of the population who were not

measured.

Non-sampling Errors

Non-sampling errors arise due to biases and mistakes such as

(i) incomplete population members

(ii) non-random selection of samples

(iii) use of faculty questionnaire for data collection

(iv) wrong editing, coding, and presenting of the responses

received through the questionnaire.

Non-sampling errors can occur because of problems in

coverage, response, non-response, data processing, estimation

and analysis. Each of these types of errors is explained below.

Coverage errors

An error in coverage occurs when there is an omission,

duplication or wrongful inclusion of the units in the population

or sample. Omissions are referred to as undercoverage, while

duplication and wrongful inclusions are called overcoverage.

These errors are caused by defects in the survey frame:

inaccuracy, incompleteness, duplication, inadequacy and

obsolescence. Coverage errors may also occur in field

procedures (e.g., a survey is conducted, but the interviewer

misses several households or persons).

Response errors

Response errors result from the data that have been requested,

provided, received or recorded incorrectly. The response errors may

occur because of inefficiencies with the questionnaire, the

interviewer, the respondent or the survey process.

Poor questionnaire design

It is essential that sample survey or census questions are worded

carefully in order to avoid introducing bias. If questions are

misleading or confusing, then the responses may end up being

distorted.

Interview bias

An interviewer can influence how a respondent answers the survey

questions. This may occur when the interviewer is too friendly or

aloof or prompts the respondent. To prevent this, interviewers must

be trained to remain neutral throughout the interview. They must

also pay close attention to the way they ask each question. If an

interviewer changes the way a question is worded, it may impact the

respondent's answer.

Respondent errors

Respondents can also provide incorrect answers. Faulty

recollections, tendencies to exaggerate or underplay events,

and inclinations to give answers that appear more 'socially

desirable' are several reasons why a respondent may provide a

false answer.

Problems with the survey process

Errors can also occur because of a problem with the actual

survey process. Using proxy responses (taking answers from

someone other than the respondent) or lacking control over the

survey procedures are just a few ways of increasing the

possibility for response errors.

Non-response errors

Non-response errors are the result of not having obtained

sufficient answers to survey questions. There are two types of

non-response errors: complete and partial.

These errors can occur when the survey fails to measure some

of the units in the selected sample. Reasons for this type of

error may be that the respondent is unavailable or temporarily

absent, the respondent is unable or refuses to participate in the

survey, or the dwelling is vacant. If a significant number of

people do not respond to a survey, then the results may be

biased since the characteristics of the non-respondents may

differ from those who have participated.

Sampling Method

the sample drawn is such that each and every unit in the population has an

equal chance of being included in the sample. In simple random sampling,

the item selected in sample is just a matter of chance. Here, the word

random does not mean haphazard or hit or miss but it implies that only the

chance, which determines the item that are to be included in the sample.

Systematic Sampling

Systematic sampling, sometimes called interval sampling,

means that there is a regular gap, or interval, between each

selection. This method is often used in industry, where an item

is selected for testing from a production line (say, every fifteen

minutes) to ensure that machines and equipment are working

to specification.

For example, the manufacturer might decide to select every

20th item on a production line to test for defects and quality.

This technique requires the first item to be selected at random

as a starting point for testing and, thereafter, every 20th item is

chosen. Another example is, when questioning people in a

sample survey. A market researcher might select every 10th

person who enters a particular store, after selecting a person at

random as a starting point; or interview occupants of every 5th

house in a street, after selecting a house at random as a starting

point.

Stratified Sampling

A general problem with random sampling is that you could, by

chance, miss out a particular group of units in the sample.

However, if you form the population into groups, and a sample

contains units from each group, you can make sure the sample

is representative.

Stratified random sampling is a random sampling method,

which uses the available information relating to population for

designing a more efficient sample. In stratified random

sampling, a given population to be sampled is sub-divided into

number of sub-groups or sub-population known as Strata.

The units of each stratum are homogeneous and differ as

widely as possible between strata

Cluster Sampling

Sometimes it is too expensive to spread a sample across the

population as a whole. Travel costs can become expensive if

interviewers have to survey people from one end of the

country to the other. To reduce costs, statisticians may choose

a cluster sampling technique.

Cluster sampling divides the population into groups or

clusters. A number of clusters are selected randomly to

represent the total population, and then all units within

selected clusters are included in the sample. No units from

non-selected clusters are included in the samplethey are

represented by those from selected clusters. This differs from

stratified sampling, where some units are selected from each

group.

areas such as electoral subdivisions. The selected clusters are

used to represent the population.

Multistage Sampling

Multi-stage sampling is like the cluster method, except that it

involves picking a sample from within each chosen cluster,

rather than including all units in the cluster. This type of

sampling requires at least two stages. In the first stage, large

groups or clusters are identified and selected. These clusters

contain more population units than are needed for the final

sample.

In the second stage, population units are picked from within

the selected clusters (using any of the possible probability

sampling methods) for a final sample. If more than two stages

are used, the process of choosing population units within

clusters continues until there is a final sample.

Non-probability Sampling

Convenience sampling

Judgment sampling

Quota sampling

Principles of Sampling

Law of Statistical Regularity

Law of Inertia of Large Numbers.

The law of statistical regularity owes its origin to the

mathematical theory of probability. According to Conner, The

law of statistical regularity lays down that a group of objects

chosen at random from a larger group tends to possess the

characteristics of that large group (universe).

In simple words, the law states that if the sample is drawn

from the population at random, is likely to have the same

characteristics as that of the population.

i. Large sample size: As the sample size increases, the

sample is likely to reveal the characteristics similar to

population and provides reliable estimates of the population

parameter.

ii. Random Selection: The sample from the population is to

be selected at random. By random selection, we mean a

selection where each and every item of the population has an

equal chance of being selected in the sample. A randomly

selected sample would be representative of the population.

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