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DREDGING TOPICS

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Project- the need of dredging
Hydrographic Equipment for
surveys
Dredging plants
Contracts
Productions
Costing

Regulatory Body – Government Agency

PROJECT
LAYOUT AND
SITE PLAN
SAILING ROUTE FOR
TSHD’S DREDGING
AND DUMPING
OPERATION

DREDGING IN PORTS




ALONG NAVIGATIONAL WATERWAYS
AT THE APPROACHES
ALONGSIDE BERTHING BASINS
RECLAMATIONS
REQUIREMENTS OF PORT
EXPANSION
OTHERS

WHAT IS DREDGING ● Picking-up the material ● Transportation ● Deposition of the Soil 3. WHY DREDGING ● Capital Dredging ● Maintenance Dredging ● Environmental Issues . ● Yearly turn-over 2.DREDGING MARKET NEED FOR DREDGING ● Dredging industry ● Contracts 1.

Investigation study           Market study Technical study Required investigations Geotechnical Hydrographic Meteorology Morphological Environmental Double effort pays Consider role of consultants .

Geotechnical Investigations    Dredge of ability of soil Utility of soil Foundation properties .

What is Dredging  Dredging is the removal of soil from an underwater location and transporting it to another location  Dredging consists of 4 phases : • • • • Dislodging: Vertical transport Horizontal transport Disposal : : : : picking lifting shifting dropping .2.

Dredging Phases a) Dislodging and picking-up the material from underwater by : • Erosion • Jetting • Cutting • Suction • Breaking • Grabbing .

Dredging Phases b) Transportation of the material by : • Barges • Hoppers • Pipeline • Conveyor belt • Trucks • Drag lines • Bulldozers .

Dredging Phases c) Deposition of the material by : • Pipeline discharge • Rain bowing • Bottom door disposal • Crane unloading FOR • Beneficial use • Reclamation • Storage .

3. Why Dredging? Dredging is driven by Global growth • Growth • Population Growth • Growth in Tourism • Growth in Energy Consumption • Environment and Climate change Dredging is necessary for : • Capital/ Construction works • Maintenance .

including approach channels.Capital Dredging     New harbours .channels and rivers Reclamation projects Winning and mining purposes .turning basins and future quay wall areas Widening and/or deeping of existing harbours.

CAPITAL DREDGING  Is executed for the purpose of :  a .Offshore industry  .Infrastructure  c .Navigation  b .Mining industry  e .Coastal engineering  d .

CAPITAL DREDGING FOR NAVIGATION      Optimum dredging of a navigation channel depends on a number of components Required dredging depth for navigation : how deep ? Required dredging width for one way or multi – lane traffic : how wide ? .

rolling and pitching Keel clearance Sounding Sedimentation Dredging tolerance .I = How deep ?          Lowest water level Water references level [ tide ] Admissible draught Squat Heaving .

s = Cb x S x Vs in which : s =squat .08 .Squat  Squat is a calculation on ship’s keel verses ship speed over navigation channel and in an open water………. Cb= block coefficient v = vessel speed . S = S/(1-S) S = blockage factor 2/3 2     2.

ii = How wide     Movements of the vessels Type of the channel bank Bank clearance Wind and currents .

Vessel motions Ship hydrodynamics • While sailing • While moored Assessed by physical modeling Affects • Vessel movements • Mooring forces .

In-situ Density    Sediment generally unconsolidated Density / volume changes over time Can be dredged at in – situ density .

plus under-and backfilling Construction of reservoirs .run/taxi ways for airports Sand for reclamation areas. dams Borrow pits for re-handling purposes .tunnelling.for future tourist industry Construction of harbours and ports Trenchers sewerage outfall pipelines.Capital Dredging for Infrastructure       Sand for highway/road construction.

Capital Dredging for Coastal Engeneering     Compensation of littoral drift Compensation of offshore erosion Beach nourishment Groins and breakwaters .

Maintenance Dredging To maintain and safeguard the function of the subject. with respect to : • Nautical aspects • Hydraulic capacity • Land protection • Environment values .

Factors Influencing the Need for Maintenance Dredging      Littoral drift Downstream siltation In-situ density Nautical depth Volume and type of material .

Littoral Drift    Blocks port entrances Causes beach erosion / accretion Depends on wind/ waves. currents and material .

Downstream Siltation    Sediment deposit in widening ports/estuaries Obstruction to shipping Can be caught in traps / pits .

In –situ Density    Sediment generally unconsolidated Density / volume changes over time Can be dredged at in-situ density .

causing obstructions to dredging.predictions to be made In ports:generally a lot of debris present. difficult to assess Gas development in sediment necessitates dredging with de-gassing Contamination content might limit disposal options .Volume and Type of Material     Quantity distribution defines recurrence of dredging.

Identification Investigation study Feasibility study Preliminary design Financing Detailed design Tender specification Tendering Execution Maintenance and operation . 4. 3. 6. 9. 7. 5.Project Phasing 1. 8. 10. 2.

Different scenarios .Economic studies .Type of vessel .Indentification What is the problem .

Identification • Lay out of the project Ouay wall requirements Breakwaters Reclamation areas Storage areas Strategy Outside expertise very important .

Hydrographic Investigations    Site bathymetry Tidal / current / wave data Sea bottom features .

rainfall Fog . ice .Meteorological Conditions     Wind. storms Sunshine . temperature Humidity .

Morphological Investigations    Littoral drift River sediment transport Siltation patterns .

Environmental Investigations        Effect of dredging Effect of reclamation Effect of disposal Influence of siltation Any pollution Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Environmental Monitoring Plan(EMP) .

to compute quantities/volumes to dredge & money to pay COST OF SURVEY ?.Dimension of channel (Area x pre dredge survey data compared to design depth) .SURVEY FOR DREDGING     WHY SURVEY ? – need to carry out pre/progress/post dredged survey WHAT IS SURVEY ?.bathymetric /depth informations A NEED FOR SURVEY ?.

HYDROGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT        MULTIBEAM ECHO SOUNDER SINGLE BEAM ECHO SOUNDER DGPS FOR HORIZONTAL POSITIONING AUTOMATIC TIDE GAUGES HYDRO SOFTWARES SURVEY BOAT & GOOD WEATHER EXPERIENCED SURVEYORS & GOOD POWER SUPPLY .

Multibeam versus Single Beam .

EM3000 SONAR HEAD (MBE) .

DGPS EQUIPMENT .

HYDROGRAPHIC BOAT .

TYPES OF DREDGERS       CUTTER SUCTION DREDGER TRAILING SUCTION HOPPER DREDGER BACKHOE DREDGER GRAB DREDGER ENVIRONMENTAL DREDGER OTHER EQUIPMENT .

TRAILER HOPPER SUCTION DREDGER (THSD) .

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DREDGERS READY FOR DREDGING .