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DREDGING TOPICS

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Project- the need of dredging


Hydrographic Equipment for
surveys
Dredging plants
Contracts
Productions
Costing

Regulatory Body Government Agency

PROJECT
LAYOUT AND
SITE PLAN
SAILING ROUTE FOR
TSHDS DREDGING
AND DUMPING
OPERATION

DREDGING IN PORTS

ALONG NAVIGATIONAL WATERWAYS


AT THE APPROACHES
ALONGSIDE BERTHING BASINS
RECLAMATIONS
REQUIREMENTS OF PORT
EXPANSION
OTHERS

DREDGING MARKET
NEED
FOR
DREDGING
Dredging industry Contracts
1.

Yearly turn-over
2. WHAT IS DREDGING
Picking-up the material
Transportation
Deposition of the Soil
3. WHY DREDGING
Capital Dredging
Maintenance Dredging
Environmental Issues

Investigation study

Market study
Technical study
Required investigations
Geotechnical
Hydrographic
Meteorology
Morphological
Environmental
Double effort pays
Consider role of consultants

Geotechnical
Investigations

Dredge of ability of soil


Utility of soil
Foundation properties

2. What is Dredging

Dredging is the removal of soil from an underwater


location and transporting it to another location

Dredging consists of 4 phases :

Dislodging:
Vertical transport
Horizontal transport
Disposal

:
:
:
:

picking
lifting
shifting
dropping

Dredging Phases
a)

Dislodging and picking-up the material


from underwater by :
Erosion
Jetting
Cutting
Suction
Breaking
Grabbing

Dredging Phases
b)

Transportation of the material by :

Barges

Hoppers

Pipeline

Conveyor belt

Trucks

Drag lines

Bulldozers

Dredging Phases
c)

Deposition of the material by :


Pipeline discharge
Rain bowing
Bottom door disposal
Crane unloading
FOR
Beneficial use
Reclamation
Storage

3. Why Dredging?
Dredging is driven by Global growth
Growth
Population Growth
Growth in Tourism
Growth in Energy Consumption
Environment and Climate change
Dredging is necessary for :
Capital/ Construction works
Maintenance

Capital Dredging

New harbours , including approach


channels,turning basins and future
quay wall areas
Widening and/or deeping of existing
harbours,channels and rivers
Reclamation projects
Winning and mining purposes

CAPITAL DREDGING

Is executed for the purpose of :

a - Navigation

b - Infrastructure

c - Coastal engineering

d - Mining industry

e - Offshore industry

CAPITAL DREDGING FOR


NAVIGATION

Optimum dredging of a navigation


channel depends on a number of
components
Required dredging depth for navigation :
how deep ?
Required dredging width for one way or
multi lane traffic :
how wide ?

I = How deep ?

Lowest water level


Water references level [ tide ]
Admissible draught
Squat
Heaving , rolling and pitching
Keel clearance
Sounding
Sedimentation
Dredging tolerance

Squat

Squat is a calculation on ships keel


verses ship speed over navigation
channel and in an open water.
s = Cb x S x Vs
in which :
s =squat
, Cb= block coefficient
v = vessel speed , S = S/(1-S)
S = blockage factor
2/3

2.08

ii = How wide

Movements of the vessels


Type of the channel bank
Bank clearance
Wind and currents

Vessel motions
Ship hydrodynamics
While sailing
While moored
Assessed by physical modeling
Affects
Vessel movements
Mooring forces

In-situ Density

Sediment generally unconsolidated


Density / volume changes over
time
Can be dredged at in situ density

Capital Dredging for


Infrastructure

Sand for highway/road construction,run/taxi ways for


airports
Sand for reclamation areas,for future tourist industry
Construction of harbours and ports
Trenchers sewerage outfall pipelines,tunnelling,plus
under-and backfilling
Construction of reservoirs , dams
Borrow pits for re-handling purposes

Capital Dredging for Coastal


Engeneering

Compensation of littoral drift


Compensation of offshore erosion
Beach nourishment
Groins and breakwaters

Maintenance Dredging
To maintain and safeguard the function
of the subject, with respect to :
Nautical aspects
Hydraulic capacity
Land protection
Environment values

Factors Influencing the Need


for Maintenance Dredging

Littoral drift
Downstream siltation
In-situ density
Nautical depth
Volume and type of material

Littoral Drift

Blocks port entrances


Causes beach erosion / accretion
Depends on wind/ waves, currents
and material

Downstream Siltation

Sediment deposit in widening


ports/estuaries
Obstruction to shipping
Can be caught in traps / pits

In situ Density

Sediment generally unconsolidated


Density / volume changes over
time
Can be dredged at in-situ density

Volume and Type of


Material

Quantity distribution defines recurrence


of dredging,predictions to be made
In ports:generally a lot of debris
present,causing obstructions to
dredging; difficult to assess
Gas development in sediment
necessitates dredging with de-gassing
Contamination content might limit
disposal options

Project Phasing
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Identification
Investigation study
Feasibility study
Preliminary design
Financing
Detailed design
Tender specification
Tendering
Execution
Maintenance and operation

Indentification
What is the problem
- Economic studies
- Type of vessel
- Different scenarios

Identification
Lay out of the project
Ouay wall requirements
Breakwaters
Reclamation areas
Storage areas
Strategy
Outside expertise very important

Hydrographic
Investigations

Site bathymetry
Tidal / current / wave data
Sea bottom features

Meteorological Conditions

Wind, storms
Sunshine , temperature
Humidity , rainfall
Fog , ice

Morphological
Investigations

Littoral drift
River sediment transport
Siltation patterns

Environmental
Investigations

Effect of dredging
Effect of reclamation
Effect of disposal
Influence of siltation
Any pollution
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
Environmental Monitoring Plan(EMP)

SURVEY FOR DREDGING

WHY SURVEY ? need to carry out


pre/progress/post dredged survey
WHAT IS SURVEY ?- bathymetric /depth
informations
A NEED FOR SURVEY ?- to compute
quantities/volumes to dredge & money
to pay
COST OF SURVEY ?- Dimension of channel
(Area x pre dredge survey data compared
to design depth)

HYDROGRAPHIC
EQUIPMENT

MULTIBEAM ECHO SOUNDER


SINGLE BEAM ECHO SOUNDER
DGPS FOR HORIZONTAL POSITIONING
AUTOMATIC TIDE GAUGES
HYDRO SOFTWARES
SURVEY BOAT & GOOD WEATHER
EXPERIENCED SURVEYORS & GOOD
POWER SUPPLY

Multibeam versus Single Beam

EM3000 SONAR HEAD


(MBE)

DGPS EQUIPMENT

HYDROGRAPHIC BOAT

TYPES OF DREDGERS

CUTTER SUCTION DREDGER


TRAILING SUCTION HOPPER
DREDGER
BACKHOE DREDGER
GRAB DREDGER
ENVIRONMENTAL DREDGER
OTHER EQUIPMENT

TRAILER HOPPER SUCTION DREDGER (THSD)

DREDGERS READY FOR


DREDGING