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WESTERN DISTURBANCES (WD)

WESTERN DISTURBANCES are low


pressure areas in westerly wind regime
Source region of these disturbances are
Mediterranean sea , Caspian Sea and
Black Sea
They generally move from west to east
across Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and
North India
When 2 or more closed isobars can be
drawn at 2 hPa interval on isobaric charts,
they are called Western Depressions

SEASON, FREQUENCY OF WD & WIND


CHANGE WITH APPROACH OF WD
They occur generally from November to May
Average Frequency
month
Av
freq

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

April

May
2

With approach of WD, low level winds veer from


W/NW to S/SW

STRUCTURE OF WD
They have frontal structure with warm and cold
fronts over the Mediterranean Sea
Their structure is similar to extra tropical
depressions

SYSTEMS OVER INDIA


Systems which arrive over India are in occluded
stage and warm front is not traceable on the
surface charts
warm
cold

cold

TRACK OF WD OVER INDIA


Induced lows: As WD moves across extra
tropical latitudes, induced lows develop over
south Pakistan and Rajasthan. Punjab and
North India get bulk of rain from WD
After crossing North India , some of these WDs
move eastwards over Assam and adjoining
areas.Some others move ENE wards towards
Himalayas
They affect the extreme northern parts of India in
November and their track shifts southwards
during December to March
The track again starts shifting northwards from
April to May as the season advances

SEQUENCE OF WEATHER WITH


APPROACHING WD
Rise in temperature (TT, TnTn)
Fall of surface pressure
The sequence of clouds in advance of the warm
front is CI, CS, CC, AC, AS, NS mixed with ST,
SC and CU

SEQUENCE OF PRECIPITATION
Light rain or drizzle over extended area
even up to 200 km with approaching warm front
Intermittent light rain or showers in the warm
sector
Heavy showers of short duration accompanied
by thunderstorms ,squall and hail during
passage of cold front

SEQUENCE OF WEATHER AFTER THE


PASSAGE OF WD
Rise in surface pressure
Fall in surface temperature
Occurrence of radiation fog ( to the rear of WD )
over NW India , UP , Bihar, N. Bengal and Assam
Cold waves : temperatures fall rapidly to the rear
of WD due to rushing in of cold air from north /
northwesterly direction .This results in cold wave
conditions.
Cold wave is defined with respect to departure of
TnTn from normal values of Tn Tn

AVIATION HAZARDS AND WD


Thunderstorms accompanied by heavy
showers ,squalls and hail
Low clouds
Poor visibility
Turbulence and icing in CB clouds