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Lockhart and Martinelli successfully correlated 1- using Xtt

Xtt = the Lockhart and Martinelli parameter

(dP / dz ) l

(
dP
/
dz
)
v

1/ 2

1 x 0.9 v 0.5 l 0.1


(
) ( ) ( )
x
l
v

1 f n ( X tt )
hTP
1

f n ( X tt ) or f n (
)
hf
X tt
Chens Correlation (1963)

Nucleate Boiling Heat trfr coeff.

hTP hNCB hc
hNCB : Saturate nucleate boiling
hc :Two-phase forced convection

-For hNCB Chen used the equation of Zuber and Forster as a beginning

k l0.79 Cp l0.45 l0.49


h 0.00122
0.5
0.29 0.24
0.24

l
lv
v

0.24
0.75

sat
sat

Which is from the instantaneous bubble diameter and growth rate.


However, the actual superheat controlling the bubble growth is not
Tsat Tw Tsat but Te Tl (at bubble tip ) Tsat , which is smaller
than Tsat
In pool boiling, the boundary layer thickness is thick,
therefore, Te Tsat
However, in forced convective boiling, the boundary thickness is thin,
consequently Te Tsat

Pool boiling
Tl y

Tsat

Tsat

Te

Force convective boiling


Tsat

Te

Tl y

Tsat

Therefore, the Zuber and Forsters equation should be modified as


follows for forced convective boiling

hNCB

k l0.79 Cp l0.45 l0.49


0.24
0.75
0.00122 0.5 0.29 0.24 0.24 Te Pe
l ilv v

Chen defined a suppression factor S, the ratio of the superheat at


the bubble tip(Te) to the wall superheat Tsat

Te
S
Tsat

0.99

Te

Tsat

0.24

Pe

Psat

0.75

Note that from the Clausius-Clapeyron relation


P

Tsat

ilv

Tsat vlv

ilv
Pe Te
Tsat vlv
Psat Tsat

hNCB

ilv
Tsat vlv

Pe
Te


Psat
Tsat

k l0.79 Cp l0.45 l0.49


0.24
0.75
0.00122 0.5 0.29 0.24 0.24 Tsat
Psat
S
l ilv v

It might be expected that S1 at low flows, S0 at high flow.


Therefore, Chen suggested that S f n (Re TP )
ReTP is the two-phase Reynolds number, which will be defined later.

-For hC
It is assumed that hC could be represented by a Dittus-Boeltet
type equation.

hC 0.023 Re

0.8
TP

k TP
D

0.4
TP

Pr

PrTP Prl , kTP = kl, since heat is transferred to a liquid film


in annular flow regime.
0.8
Re TP

G (1 x) D
0 .8
Re l F

G (1 x) D
hC 0.023

0 .8

0.8

Cp
k

0 .4

kl
( )F
D

F may be considered as a two-phase convection enhancement factor.

Since F is a flow parameter only, it may be expected that F can be


expressed as a function of the Martinelli factor, Xtt

F f n ( X tt )
Chen presented F and S graphically as follows.

From Collier, 1981

The factors F and S may be fitted as follows:

X tt1 0.10

1.0
2.35( X tt

0.213) 0.736

X tt1 0.10

[1 0.12(ReTP )1.14 ] 1
ReTP 32.5

S [1 0.42(ReTP ) 0.78 ] 1
32.5 ReTP 70.0

0.1
70 ReTP

G (1 x) De 1.25
Where ReTP
F 10 4
l

This fit was presented by Butterworth


From: T.A. Bjornard & P.Griffith, PWR Blowdown Heat Transfer,
Symposium on the Thermal and Hydraulic Aspects of Nuclear Reactor
Safety, vol.1 Light Water Reactors Presented at the Winter Annual
Meeting of the ASME, Atlanta, Geogia, Nov.27-Dec.2
, 1997 Ed. by O.C. Jones Jr. & S.G. Bankoff, NY. NY.

Range of conditions for data used in testing Chens correlation


Quality
(wt.%)

From: Collier, 1981

Heat Flux
(kW/m2)