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CIE2059

APPLIED SOIL
Introduction to Geotechnical
MECHANICS
Engineering

Definition and Characteristics of Soil

Contents

Origin of Soil
Academic Classification of Geotechnical
Engineering
Soil Problems in Geotechnical Engineerin
g
Solution of Geotechnical Engineering Pro
blems

Definition and Characteristics of Soil

1.1

Definition and Characteristics of Soil

1.1.1 Definition
Soil is defined as the uncemented aggregate of mineral grains and decayed organic matter(solid particles)
with liquid and gas in the empty spaces between the solid particles.

(a) Soil element in natural state

(b) The three phases if the soil element

Principles of Geotechnical Engineering, 2010, BRAJA M.DAS

1.1

Definition and Characteristics of Soil

1.1.2 Characteristi
c
(1) Nonlinear Stress-Strain Behavior

(2) Heterogeneous

Rock or Stiff Clay

Dense Sand or O.C clay


Loose Sand or N.C clay

1.1

Definition and Characteristics of Soil

1.1.2 Characteristic
(3) Anisotropic
isotropy

(4) Soil behavior depends on pressure,


time and environment

Ex = Ey

(5) Very sensitive to disturbance from


sampling

Anisotropy

Ex = Ey

x
SPT sampling
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Origin of Soil

1.2

Origin of Soil

1.2.1 Rock to soil cycle


Rock

Rocks are constantly being formed, worn down and


become soil by weathering.

Weathering

Soil
Principles of Geotechnical Engineering, 2010, BRAJA M.DAS

1.2

Origin of Soil

1.2.2 Rock
Rock Cycle

Rock

Weathering

Igneous rock

Sedimentary rock

Metamorphic rock

Soil
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1.2

Origin of Soil

1.2.1 Rock to soil cycle


Rock

Mechanical weathering
Frost action, temperature
changes(freezing and thawing), moisture
changes (cycles of wetting and drying),
wind, glaciers, streams, unloading of rock
masses (sheet jointing), and biogenic
processes (plants, animals, etc.).

Chemical weathering

Hydrolysis, Hydration, Oxidation

Weathering

Soil
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1.2

Origin of Soil

1.2.1 Rock to soil cycle


Rock

The difference between residual and transported soil is that residual


soil stays above its parent rock while transported is washed away. A
parent rock is the layer of the rock where soil forms from biological,
biochemical, and human activity.

Weathering

Soil
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1.2

Origin of Soil

1.2.1 Rock to
soil cycle
Rock

Residual Soil

Transported Soil

Weathering

Soil
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Academic Classification of
Geotechnical Engineering

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1.3

Academic Classification of Geotechnical Engineering

1.3.1 Soil Mechanic


sSoil mechanics is the science of equilibrium and motion of soil bodies. Here soil is
understood to be the weathered material in the upper layers of the earths crust. The
non-weathered material in this crust is denoted as rock, and its mechanics is the
discipline of rock mechanics. In general the difference between soil and rock is
roughly that in soils it is possible to dig a trench with simple tools such as a spade or
even by hand.

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1.3

Academic Classification of Geotechnical Engineering

1.3.2 Rock Mechanic


sRock mechanics is a theoretical and applied science of the mechanical behavior of
rock and rock masses; compared to geology, it is that branch of mechanics
concerned with the response of rock and rock masses to the force fields of their
physical environment.

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1.3

Academic Classification of Geotechnical Engineering

1.3.3 Foundation Engineering


Foundation Engineering is the engineering field of study devoted to the design of
those structures which support other structures, most typically buildings, bridges or
transportation infrastructure. It is at the periphery of Civil, Structural and Geotechnical
Engineering disciplines and has distinct focus on soil-structure interaction.

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1.3

Academic Classification of Geotechnical Engineering

1.3.4 Earth Retaining Structures


Earth retaining structures or systems are used to hold back earth and maintain a
difference in the elevation of the ground surface.

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1.3

Academic Classification of Geotechnical Engineering

1.3.5 Highway Engineering


Highway engineering is an engineering discipline branching from civil engineering that
involves the planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of roads,
bridges, and tunnels to ensure safe and effective transportation of people and goods.

Surface course
Base course
Upper roadbed

Bottom roadbed

subgrade

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1.3

Academic Classification of Geotechnical Engineering

1.3.6 Slope Stability


The field of slope stability encompasses the analysis of static and dynamic stability
of slopes of earth and rock-fill dams, slopes of other types of embankments,
excavated slopes, and natural slopes in soil and soft rock.

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1.3

Academic Classification of Geotechnical Engineering

1.3.7 Tunnel Engineering


There are a lots of tunnel type such as an underground or underwater passageway,
enclosed except for entrance and exit etc. But they have same purpose, to connect
more people and places. Tunnel engineering is to make tunnels possible in every
kinds of land conditions.

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1.3

Academic Classification of Geotechnical Engineering

1.3.8 Soil Improvement


The main goal of most soil improvement techniques used for reducing liquefaction
hazards is to avoid large increases in pore water pressure during earthquake shaking.
This can be achieved by densification of the soil and/or improvement of its drainage
capacity

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1.3

Academic Classification of Geotechnical Engineering

1.3.9 Earth Da
m
An earth dam is a dam built with highly compacted earth. This dam is classified as a
type of embankment dam, being built in the shape of an embankment or wedge which
blocks a waterway. These dams have been built by various human societies for
centuries, and they continue to be produced in some regions of the world when they
appear to be suitable for the location and intended use.

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1.3

Academic Classification of Geotechnical Engineering

1.3.10 Geo-environmental Engineering


Geo Environmental Engineering is a geotechnical and environmental consultancy
dealing in the design, implementation and project management of cost effective site
assessments and ground investigations.

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1.3

Academic Classification of Geotechnical Engineering

1.3.11 Soil Dynamics


Soil dynamics deals with behavior of soil, material properties of soil under dynamic
stress and foundations under dynamic loads, vary in their magnitude, direction or
position with time. And soil dynamics analysis is usually about the stability of earth
supported/ retaining structures.

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Soil Problems in
Geotechnical Engineerin
g

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1.4

Soil Problems in Geotechnical Engineering

1.4.1 Foundations
Shallow Foundations
Shallow foundations are, usually, embedded from one to two meters beneath the
final finish elevation.

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1.4

Soil Problems in Geotechnical Engineering

1.4.1 Foundations
Deep Foundations
A deep footing is an engineered structure used to transfer load from a structure to stronger
deeper soil layers or bedrock. Different types of deep foundations include driven piles, drilled
piles, drilled shafts, caissons, piers, earth stabilized columns, and helical piles.

Bearing capacity
The bearing capacity of soil is the average contact stress between a foundation and the soil
which will cause shear failure in the soil. Allowable bearing stress is the bearing capacity divided
by a factor of safety.

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1.4

Soil Problems in Geotechnical Engineering

1.4.2 Soil as a Construction Material

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1.4

Soil Problems in Geotechnical Engineering

1.4.3 Slopes and Excavations

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1.4

Soil Problems in Geotechnical Engineering

1.4.4 Underground and Earth Retaining Structures

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1.4

Soil Problems in Geotechnical Engineering

1.4.5 Special Problems


(1) Vibrations

(2) Blasting and Earthquake

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1.4

Soil Problems in Geotechnical Engineering

1.4.5 Special Problems


(3) Soil Contaminant

(4) Frost

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Solution of Geotechnical
Engineering Problems

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1.5

Solution of Geotechnical Engineering Problems

Equilibrium
Condition

Change in Load and


Environment
Geotechnical
Investigation
-Laboratory
-Field

Soil Mechanics,
Rock Mechanics,
Geology etc
Modelling:
Use of theory modified by
Experience and Engineering
Judegement

Design procedure : Safe


and Economical

Construction
Procedure

Monitor the system


and have alternative
plans

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