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SAMPLING AND

RECONSTRUCTION OF ANALOG
SIGNALS USING VARIOUS
INTERPOLATION TECHNIQUES

BY
G.CHANDRAHAS(150040263)
K.HARISH(150040296)
J.PAVANI(150040301)

Objectives:

Generate and display analog signals.


Performing ADC and DAC operations.
Study the effect of sampling on the
frequency-domain quantities.
Reconstruction of the signal using
various interpolation.

Sampling

In signal processing, sampling is the


reduction of a continuous signal to
a discrete signal. A common example is
the conversion of a sound wave (a
continuous signal) to a sequence of
samples (a discrete-time signal).

Reconstruction

reconstruction filter is used to


construct a smooth analog signal from a
digital input, as in the case of a digital to
analog converter (DAC) or other
sampled data output device. In signal
processing, reconstruction usually
means the determination of an original
continuous signal from a sequence of
equally spaced samples

Interpolation

In the domain of digital signal processing,


the term interpolation refers to the
process of converting a sampled
digital signal (such as a sampled
audio signal) to that of a higher sampling
rate (Upsampling) using various digital
filtering techniques
(e.g., convolution with a frequencylimited impulse signal).

zero-order hold interpolation

The zero-order hold (ZOH) is a


mathematical model of the practical signal
reconstruction done by a
conventional digital-to-analog
converter (DAC). That is, it describes the
effect of converting a discrete-time
signal to a continuous-time signal by
holding each sample value for one
sample interval. It has several
applications in electrical communication.

SPLINE INTERPOLATION

Splines describe a smooth function with


a small number of parameters. Splines
are convenient to model arbitrary
continuous functions, as fixed-point
implementation is efficient and
straightforward.

Sampling and Reconstruction of


Analog Signals

Ability to convert an analog signal to a


discrete-time sequence via sampling
(ii) Ability to construct an analog signal
from a discrete-time sequence
(iii) Understanding the conditions when
a sampled signal can uniquely present
its analog counterpart

Analog-to-digital converter

In electronics, an analog-to-digital
converter (ADC, A/D, AD, or A-to-D) is a system
that converts an analog signal into a digital signal.
A digital-to-analog converter (DAC) performs the
reverse function.
An ADC may also provide an isolated measurement
such as an electronic device that converts an input
analog voltage or current to a digital number
proportional to the magnitude of the voltage or
current. Typically the digital output will be a two's
complement binary number that is proportional to
the input, but there are other possibilities.

TH

U
O
Y
K
N
A