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MICROCONTROLLER

(PengontrolMikro)
TahunAkademik2013

PENDAHULUAN

Arsitektur:NeumannvsHarvard

CISC, RISC, NISC


CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computers) architecture;
RISC (Reduced instruction set computing architecture)
No instruction set
computing (NISC) is a
computing architecture
and compiler
technology for
designing highly
efficient custom
processors and
hardware accelerators
by allowing a compiler
to have low-level
control of hardware
resources

RISCvsCISC

MikroprosesorvsMikrokontroller
Mikroprosesor(P)

Mikrokontroller(C)

ReviewMikroprosesor

IR:InstructionRegister
MA:MemoryAddress
MA:ProgramCounter

Definisi
A microprocessor incorporates the
functions of a computer's central processing
unit (CPU) on a single integrated
circuit (IC), multipurpose
programmable device.
A microcontroller is a specialized form of
microprocessor that is designed to be selfsufficient and cost-effective, where a
microprocessor is typically designed to be
general purpose (the kind used in a PC).

Definisi
Microcontrollersarefrequentlyfoundin
automobiles,officemachines,toys,andappliances.
AplikasiMicrocontrollersadalahembedded
system(acomputersystemdesignedforspecific
controlfunctionswithinalargersystem,often
withreal-timecomputingconstraints)

EmbeddedSystemConfiguration
Programs
Operating

Hardware

System

TypicalComputersystem
Configuration

UserProgram
IncludingOperating

Hardware

SystemComponents

TypicalEmbeddedsystem
Configuration

Mikrokontroler
DefinisiMikrokontroleradalah
sebuahsistemmikroprosesorlengkapyangterkandungdi
dalamsebuahchip.Mikrokontrolerberbedadari
mikroprosesorserbagunayangdigunakandalamsebuah
PC,karenasebuahmikrokontrolerumumnyatelahberisi
komponenpendukungsistemminimalmikroprosesor,
yaknimemoridanantarmukaI/O.
Minimumsistem:
CPU,ROM,RAM,I/Oport

ArsitekturMikrokontroler

Jenis jenis Mikrokontroler


Intel 8051/MCS51 architecture, 8048, 8049, 8051, 8031.
Atmel; Atmel AT91 series (ARM THUMB architecture)
AT90, Tiny & Mega series AVR (Atmel Norway design) Atmel
AT89 series, Atmel AVR (8-bit), AVR32 (32-bit), and AT91SAM
(32-bit)
Freescale 68HC11 (8-bit)
NXP Semiconductors LPC1000, LPC2000, LPC3000,
LPC4000 (32-bit), LPC900, LPC700 (8-bit)LPC2000, LPC900,
LPC700
Microchip; Low End, Mikrokontroler PIC 12-bit
Mid Range, Mikrokontroler PIC 14-bit
(PIC16F84, PIC16F877) 16-bit instruction PIC High End,
Mikrokontroler PIC 16-bit;
Texas Instruments TI MSP430 (16-bit) C2000 (32-bit)

Chipvspackage
Themicroprocessorisaprocessoronone
siliconchip
Themicrocontrollerisacomputersystem
ononepackage;
Inmicroelectronics,adual in-line
package(DIPorDIL)isanelectronic
devicepackagewitharectangularhousing
andtwoparallelrowsofelectrical
connectingpins.

Karakteristik mikroprosesor

Karakteristik penting dari mikroprosesor


Ukuranbusdatainternal(internal data bus size):Jumlahsaluranyang
terdapatdalammikroprosesoryangmenyatakanjumlahbityangdapat
ditransferantarkomponendidalammikroprosesor.
Ukuranbusdataeksternal(external data bus size):Jumlahsaluranyang
digunakanuntuktransferdataantarkomponenantaramikroprosesordan
komponen-komponendiluarmikroprosesor.
Ukuranalamatmemori(memory address size):Jumlahalamatmemori
yangdapatdialamatiolehmikroprosesorsecaralangsung.
Kecepatanclock(clock speed):Rateataukecepatanclockuntuk
menuntunkerjamikroprosesor.
Fitur-fiturspesial(special features):Fiturkhususuntukmendukung
aplikasitertentusepertifasilitaspemrosesanfloating point,multimedia
dansebagainya.

Mikrokontroler

INTEL MCS-51
TheIntel MCS-51(commonlyreferredto
as8051)isaHarvardarchitecture,single
chipmicrocontroller(C)serieswhich
wasdevelopedbyIntelin1980forusein
embeddedsystems.
KeluargaintelyanglainMCS-48

JenisMCS-48
Minimumsistem:CPU,ROM,RAM,I/Oport
SingleChipMicrocomputer(mikrokomputersepihtunggal)

INTEL 8051
The8051istheoriginalmemberoftheMCW-51family,andisthe
coreforallMCS-51devices.Thefeaturesofthe
8051coreare
8-bitCPUoptimizedforcontrolapplications
ExtensiveBooleanprocessing(Single-bltlogic)capabtilties
64KProgramMemoryaddressspace
64KDataMemoryaddressspace
4Kbytesofon-chipProgramMemory
128bytesofon-chipDataRAM
32bidirectionalandindividuallyaddressable1/0lines
Two16-bittimer/counters
FullduplexUART
6-source/5-vectorinterruptstructurewithtwoprioritylevels
On-chipclockoscillator

Pin-pin
8051

Block Diagram of
the 8051 Core

Central
Processing
Unit
8051

ROM

EPROM,
EEPROM
orFlashmemory
forprogramand
operatingparameter
storage

8051 Program Memory

Executing from External


Program Memory

Eksekusi Program
Afterreset,the
CPUbegins
executionfrom
location
0000H.

RAM
volatilememory(
RAM)fordata
storage

8051 Data Memory

Input/output Port

Input/output Port (2)

Timer/Counter

Timer-interupt

ClockGenerator
clockgenerator-
oftenan
oscillatorfora
quartztiming
crystal.

Reset
Reset:resetting

PowerSupply

PowerSupply(2)

Interupsi
External
InterruptO,
forexample,
isassignedto
location
0003H

BAHASA PEMROGRAMAN

MOV A,Rn
MOV A,direct
MOV A,#data
MOV Rn.A

MoveregistertoAccumulator
MovedirectbytetoAccumulator
MovedatatoAccumulator
MoveAccumulatortoregister

8051 Mnemonic

8051 Mnemonic

FITUR TAMBAHAN
Beberapafiturtambahantelahtersedia
dalammikrokontroler
PortSerial,UART,USART
PWMGenerator
WatchdogTimer
ADC
DAC

UART
UARTatauUniversal
Asynchronous
ReceiverTransmitteradalah bagianperangkat keraskomputeryang
menerjemahkanantarabit-bitparaleldatadanbit-bitserial.
UART biasanya berupasirkuit terintegrasiyang digunakan
untukkomunikasi serialpada komputer atauportserial
perangkatperiperal.UARTsekaranginitermasukdidalam
beberapamikrokontroler(contohnya,PIC16F628).
UART biasanya terdiri dari:
Penyangga(buffer)Transmit/Receive
Pengendali(control)Transmit/Receive
PenyanggaBusData
LogikaKendaliRead/Write
KendaliModem
USART Universal Synchronous-Asynchronous
Receiver/Transmitter

PWMGenerators
Pulse-width modulation
(PWM),orpulse-duration
modulation (PDM)isa
modulationtechniquethat
conformsthewidthofthepulse,
formallythepulseduration,
basedonamodulatorsignal
information.
Althoughthismodulation
techniquecanbeusedtoencode
informationfortransmission,its
mainuseistoallowthecontrol
ofthepowersuppliedto
electricaldevices,especiallyto
inertialloadssuchasmotors.

Watchdog Timer
Awatchdog timer(sometimescalled
acomputer operating
properlyorCOPtimer,orsimply
awatchdog)isanelectronictimerthatis
usedtodetectandrecoverfromcomputer
malfunctions.Duringnormaloperation,the
computerregularlyrestartsthewatchdog
timertopreventitfromelapsing,or
"timingout".

MIKROPROSESOR FAMILI

8051,8052

MCS-51Family

MCS-51UsersManualBook

MCS-51Family

MCS-51UsersManualBook

Kriteria Memilih Mikrokontroler


BUS (address, data, control)
Speed.Berapakecepatanmaksimumyangbisadiberikan?
Packaging.pentingdalamhalpembuatandesainPCBdan
ukurantotaldesain.
Konsumsi daya.Inimenjadisangatpentingjikasistem
dijalankandaritenagabaterei.
Kapasitas RAM dalamchipdanekspasi;
Kapasitas ROM (PROM/EPROM/FLASH)dalamchip;
Jumlah pin I/O danjumlahTimerdalamChip
Kompatibelitas;Apakahmudahuntukmeng-upgradeatau
menggantiChipdenganversiyanglebihbaiknantinya.
BiayaperUnit..

APLIKASI MCS-48
Cash register Pompa Bensin

SistemMinimum8051

Cash register Pompa Bensin


(1988)

MDS:Microprosesor
DevelopmentSystem

EMBEDDED SYSTEM
Amicrocontrollercanbeconsideredaself-containedsystemwitha
processor,memoryandperipheralsandcanbeusedasan
embeddedsystem.[5]
Themajorityofmicrocontrollersinusetodayareembeddedinother
machinery,suchasautomobiles,telephones,appliances,and
peripheralsforcomputersystems.
Whilesomeembeddedsystemsareverysophisticated,manyhave
minimalrequirementsformemoryandprogramlength,withno
operatingsystem,andlowsoftwarecomplexity.
Typicalinputandoutputdevicesincludeswitches,relays,solenoids,
LEDs,smallorcustomLCDdisplays,radiofrequencydevices,and
sensorsfordatasuchastemperature,humidity,lightleveletc.
Embeddedsystemsusuallyhavenokeyboard,screen,disks,printers,
orotherrecognizableI/Odevicesofapersonalcomputer,andmay
lackhumaninteractiondevicesofanykind.

AVRMikrokontroler
The AVR is a modified Harvard architecture 8bit RISC single chip microcontroller which was
developed by Atmel in 1996.
The AVR was one of the first microcontroller families
to use on-chip flash memory for program storage,
as opposed to one-time programmable ROM,
EPROM, or EEPROM used by other
microcontrollers at the time.
Atmel says that the name AVR is creators of the
AVR Alf (Egil Bogen) andVegard (Wollan)'s RISC
processor.

AVR

AVR

Internet Embeded System-8051

RINGKASAN
Dalam aplikasi mikrokontroler yang utama adalah
identifikasi dan analisis masalah yang akan
diselesaikan dengan mikrokontroler.
Membandingkan fitur yang membedakan variasi dari
keluarga MCS-48 (karena jenis ini pertama kali
mikrokontroler), dan fitur/fungsi dan kompatibelitas
yang ditawarkan oleh beberapa pabrik.
Mempertimbangkan kreteria antara lain variasi dari
kecepatan, kemasan, memory dan harga per unit
serta aspek ketersedian bahasa programan.
Menerapkan mikrokontroler dengan memprogram
efisien menuju sistem real-time (sistem embedded).

RUJUKAN
http://www.tutorial-mikrokontroler.com/
http://www.wikipedia.org
http://8051-microcontrollers.blogspot.com/2013/02/8051-microcon
troller-hardware.html#.UXSXg7VHLI4

SEKIAN TERIMA KASIH


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