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TECHNOLOGY

SWI 3.2

Senior Welding Inspection


Fracture Assessments
Course Reference WIS 10

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SWI 3.2

Introduction:
Fatigue and brittle fractures are the two most
important forms of service failure in welded
structures
Fatigue fractures account for more than 90% of all
service failures
Brittle fractures although rare in occurrence are usually
catastrophic in economic terms and may cause loss in
life

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Features of Fatigue fractures:


Service failure
Occurs under cyclic/fluctuating stress
Smooth appearance
Initiates at some form of stress concentration. These
stress points may be weld defects, poor profiles,
notches etc
In certain cases evidence of beach markings
Fracture occurs perpendicular to the applied stress

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Fatigue cracking at the


weld toe

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Points of initiation

Smooth fracture surface

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Ductile fracture

Beach Marks
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Features of ductile fractures:


Rough fibrous appearance
Dull grey in colour
In certain cases evidence of shear lips
In most cases a reduction in area
Occurs as a secondary mode of failure

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Features of brittle fractures:


Usually occurs without visible or audible warning
In certain cases bright crystalline appearance
In certain cases a chevron pattern appearance, the
chevron pattern points back to the point of
initiation
Little if no reduction in area
Little if no evidence off shear lips
May be a straight brittle fracture or secondary
mode of failure

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TECHNOLOGY

SWI 3.2

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TECHNOLOGY

SWI 3.2

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SWI 3.2

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SWI 3.2

Remember in the CSWIP 3.2 Senior Welding Inspectors


examination your are required to conduct a practical
examination of two fracture samples and complete a
sketch and a final report on your findings

Time allowed 1 hour for both fracture samples


30 minutes for each fracture sample

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SWI 3.2

You are required


Sketch the fracture surface.
Indicate the fracture initiation points (if known)
Show any defects present
Identify the primary mode of failure
Identify the secondary mode of failure
State whether failure occurred in the weld, parent
material or both (if known)
Write a conclusion to summarize your findings,
providing reasons and evidence
Sign and date your report

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M.S.Rogers

TECHNOLOGY

SWI 3.2

Ductile
Fracture

A. Initiation point
B. Initiation point
C. Initiation point
D. Initiation point
E. Initiation point
F. Initiation point
G. Initiation point

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H. Weld crater/crater pipe


I. Cap undercut
J. Ductile fracture
K. Ductile fracture
L. Fatigue fracture
M. Shear lips
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B
E

G
H

H
G

A
B

A. Shear lips
B. Initiation points/weld
toe undercut
C. Weld spatter
D. Fatigue fracture surface
E. Ductile fracture surface
F. Weld undercut
G. Poor weld craters
H. Possible beach marks

Primary mode of failure: Fatigue perpendicular to the applied stress


Secondary mode of failure: Ductile fracture
Conclusion: Fatigue failure occurred at the weld toes of a fillet weld on both sides of the
joint. The fatigue failure has initiated at a number of points along the weld toes (B), theses
separately initiated into fatigue cracks and joined up by a series of steps on each side of
the of the joint (D) this is evident by the smooth appearance of the fracture surface. The
fatigue crack stopped at he possible beach marks (H).
The secondary and final mode of failure is a ductile fracture (E) this is evident by the
rough fibrous appearance and areas of shear lips (A). Other points of interest are the poor
weld craters (G) and the weld undercut (F).

Name:
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02 Rogers
Copyright 2003 TWI Ltd

Date: 13/06/03

Signature: M.S Rogers


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A-A. Initiation point


B. Stepping
C. Stepping
D. Ductile fracture
E. Inclusions
F. Inclusions
G. Fatigue fracture

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Ductile Fracture

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D
H
B

A. Shear lips B. Reduction in area C. Fatigue fracture D. Ductile fracture


E. Stepping F. Beach markings G. Inclusions H-H. Initiation point
Primary mode of failure: Fatigue perpendicular to the applied stress
Secondary mode of failure: Ductile fracture
Conclusion: Fracture occurred at the weld toe (H-H) of a butt weld along its entire
length.
A fatigue crack has initiated at the weld toe (H-H) along the welds entire length, this is
evident by the smooth fracture surface (C). The fatigue crack stopped at point (F).
The secondary mode of failure is a ductile fracture this is evident by the rough fibrous
fracture surface (D), the evidence of shear lips (A) and a reduction in area (B). Other
points to notice are the opening up of the plate inclusions (G) in the rolled direction.

Name: Mark Rogers


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Sep 02
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Date: 13/06/03

Signature: M.S Rogers


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Ductile
Fracture
A. Slag inclusion
B. Slag inclusion
C. Slag inclusion
D. Shear lip
E.
Slag inclusion
F.
Shear lip
G. Fatigue fracture
H. Ductile fracture
Note: Reduction in area

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F
D
C

A. Fatigue fracture
surface
B. Shear lips
C. Reduced area
D. Ductile fracture surface
E. Weld defects (slag
inclusions)
F. Beach markings

Primary mode of failure: Fatigue perpendicular to the applied stress


Secondary mode of failure: Ductile fracture
Conclusion: The butt weld failed due to fatigue cracks which initiated from weld metal
defects (E). The cracks have a smooth appearance this is evidence of fatigue fracture (A).
The secondary mode of failure which is the final mode is a ductile fracture this is evident
by the dull fibrous appearance of the fracture surface (D), shear lips (B) and a slight
reduction in area (C).

Name: Mark Rogers


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Sep 02
Copyright 2003 TWI Ltd

Date: 13/06/03

Signature: M.S Rogers


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TECHNOLOGY

SWI 3.2

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Ductile
Fracture
A.

Gas pore/initiation
point

B.

Beach mark

C.

Ductile fracture

D.

Fatigue fracture

E.

Shear lip

F.

Shear lip

G.

Shear lip
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A. Gas pore

B. Beach mark

C. Fatigue fracture surface


D

D. Shear lips/slight reduction in area


E. Ductile fracture surface

Primary mode of failure: Fatigue perpendicular to the applied stress


Secondary mode of failure: Ductile fracture
Conclusion: The metal shaft failed due to a fatigue crack, which initiated from a small
gas pore (A)
The primary mode of failure is from a fatigue crack (C) this is evident by the smooth
appearance of the fracture surface.
The secondary and final mode of failure is a ductile fracture (E) this is evident by the dull
gray fibrous appearance of the fracture surface, evident of shear lips (D) and a reduction
in area (D).

Name:
23
Sep Mark
02 Rogers
Copyright 2003 TWI Ltd

Date: 13/06/03

Signature: M.S Rogers


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TECHNOLOGY

SWI 3.2

Brittle
Fracture

A. Weld defect possible toe crack initiation point point


B. Small shear lip
C. Shear lip
D. Shear lip
Note: Patterned fracture surface - Brittle fracture.

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A. Weld defect, possible toe


crack
B. Shear lips
C. Patterned brittle fracture
C

Primary and final mode of failure: Brittle fracture


Conclusion: The brittle fracture initiated from a welding defect, possible toe crack.
A straight brittle fracture occurred in a butt weld, initiated from a welding defect, possible
toe crack (A).
The brittle fracture surface (C) has a distinctive pattern of markings which radiate from
the surface of the weld toe defect, possible toe crack (A). It should be noted that the
pattern points back towards the initiation point (A). Other features of interest are the
slight shear lips (B).

Name:
Mark
Rogers
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Sep
02
Copyright 2003 TWI Ltd

Date: 13/06/03

Signature: M.S Rogers


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TECHNOLOGY

SWI 3.2

Brittle Fracture
Note: Patterned/chevron fracture surface - Brittle
fracture.
Note: Small shear lips along both plate surfaces.

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A. Slight shear lips


C

B. Brittle fracture
surface/chevron pattern

C. Initiation point
A

DIRECTION OF PROPERGATION

Primary and final mode of failure: Brittle fracture


Conclusion: This service failure has no visible initiation point, the fracture is a brittle
fracture this is evident by the uniform chevron pattern (B), which points back towards the
origin of the fracture initiation point.
Other interesting points are the slight shear lips (A) and no reduction in area evident.
Name: Mark Rogers

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Sep 02
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Date: 13/06/03

Signature: M.S Rogers


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TECHNOLOGY

SWI 3.2

CTOD Brittle Fracture


A

A.

Machined notch initiation point

B.

Fatigue fracture surface

C. Brittle fracture
Note: Very little reduction in area
and no evidence of shear lips

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A. Machined notch,
initiation point
A
B

B. Fatigue fracture surface


C. brittle fracture surface
Primary and final mode of failure: Fatigue
fracture
Secondary mode of failure: Brittle fracture.

Conclusion: The CTOD sample failed from a purposely initiated fatigue crack
The primary mode of failure is a fatigue fracture (B) this is evident by the smooth fracture
surface, which initiated from a machined notch (A). The secondary mode of failure is a
brittle fracture (C) this is evident by the crystalline fracture surface with very little
evidence of plastic deformation (very little reduction in area) and no evidence of shear lips
Name: Mark Rogers

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Sep 02
Copyright 2003 TWI Ltd

Date: 13/06/03

Signature: M.S Rogers


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TECHNOLOGY

SWI 3.2

CTOD Ductile Fracture


A

A.

Machined notch initiation point

B.

Fatigue fracture surface

C. Ductile fracture surface


Note: The reduction in area and the

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large shear lips

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A. Machined notch,
initiation point
A

B. Fatigue fracture surface


C. Shear lips
D. Ductile fracture surface
Primary and final mode of failure: Fatigue
fracture
Secondary mode of failure: Ductile fracture.

Conclusion: The CTOD sample failed from a purposely initiated fatigue crack
The primary mode of failure is a fatigue fracture (B) this is evident by the smooth fracture
surface, which initiated from a machined notch (A). The secondary mode of failure is a
ductile fracture (D) this is evident by the fibrous appearance of the fracture surface with
evidence of plastic deformation, a large reduction in area and shear lips (C).
Name: Mark Rogers

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Sep 02
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Date: 13/06/03

Signature: M.S Rogers


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D
A
G

F
B

Ductile / Brittle
Fracture

F. Ductile fracture
A. Cracks / forging bursts.
G. Brittle fracture
B. Cracks / forging bursts.
C. Cracks / forging bursts
D. Initiation point / threat tip
E. Fatigue fracture
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A
E
B

A. Cracks/forging bursts
B. Fatigue fracture surface
C. Ductile fracture surface
D. Brittle fracture surface
E. Initiation point

A
A

Primary and final mode of failure: Fatigue fracture


Secondary mode of failure: Brittle fracture. Third mode of failure: Brittle fracture
Conclusion: The threaded bar failed from a fatigue crack, which initiated at the base
of the thread (E).
The primary mode of failure is a fatigue fracture (B) this is evident by the smooth fracture
surface, which initiated from the base of the thread (E). The secondary mode of failure is
a ductile fracture (C) this is evident by the fibrous appearance of the fracture surface with
evidence of plastic deformation. The final mode of failure is brittle (D) this is evident by
the bright crystalline fracture surface.

Name:
Mark
Rogers
23
Sep
02
Copyright 2003 TWI Ltd

Date: 13/06/03

Signature: M.S Rogers


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TECHNOLOGY

SWI 3.2

F
C

Ductile Fracture
D
B

A. Fatigue fracture surface. D. Initiation point / weld toe


undercut
B. Ductile fracture surface.
C. Initiation point / weld toe E. Beach marks
F. Weld spatter
undercut
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A. Fatigue fracture surface

B. Ductile fracture surface

C. Initiation point, weld toe


undercut
A

D. Initiation point, weld toe


undercut
E. Beach markings
F. Weld spatter

Primary mode of failure: Fatigue perpendicular to the applied stress


Secondary mode of failure: Ductile fracture
Conclusion: The fabricated cruciform joint failed as a result of a fatigue fracture this is
evident by the smooth fracture surface (A), its point of initiation (C,D), possible undercut
at the weld toe. The fatigue cracks tip is evident by the beach markings (E), where the
crack stop and starts with each stress cycle.
The secondary and final mode of failure is a ductile fracture (B) this is evident by the
fibrous appearance of the fracture.

Name: Mark Rogers


23
Sep 02
Copyright 2003 TWI Ltd

Date: 13/06/03

Signature: M.S Rogers


M.S.Rogers