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United Nations

+ United Nations
The

II.

UN was created in response to World War

50-70 million people died (3% of world population)


International devastation, need to rebuild
Atomic bomb, need to control further war
Need for international cooperation and peace

Today

its comprised of 193 nations, called


member states.

The

UN officially came into existence on


October 24, 1945.

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The UNS 4 Main Purposes:
To

maintain international peace and


security

To

develop friendly relations among


nations

To

cooperate in solving international


problems and in promoting respect
for human rights

To

encourage states to work together

Question!
Why

do you think a long and


destructive war would make
leaders want to form an
organization like the United
Nations?

Why

is cooperation between
nations important?

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One thing to remember
The

UN is NOT a government. It does


not make laws.

It

is an organization that gives nations


the opportunity to come together and
discuss important issues.

The

UN can sign international


treaties, or agreements between states.

Example: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

If these treaties are broken by a country, member states


may vote to take action against that country.

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6 Main Organs of the UN
The

Secretariat

General

Assembly

Security

Council

The

International Court of Justice


Also known as The Hague

Economic

and Social Council

Trusteeship

Council

+1. General Assembly


Each

member state has one vote (there are 193!)

Decision
All

other votes are decided by simple majority

Holds
If

on key issues are decided by two-thirds majority

annual sessions from September to December

necessary emergency sessions can be called

Has

six main committees who carry out various tasks when


the Assembly is not meeting

Makes

decisions on many types of issues, such as


international security, climate change, global trading, etc

This

is what YOU will be doing with Global Classrooms!

+2. Secretariat
The

Secretariat is made up of about 43,000 people


around the world and is headed by SecretaryGeneral

The

Secretariat carry out the day-to-day operations


of the UN.
Ex: Keeping the peace, mediating international
disputes, researching human rights, keeping
media informed of UNs activities, translate
speeches/documents

This

body does not vote

Secretary General

Secretary-Generals

are elected by
the General Assembly and serve 5year terms, they are the heads of the
secretariat!

The

Secretary General provides


overall guidance to the Secretariat.

The

current Secretary General is Ban


Ki-moon. He is from South Korea and
was elected in 2006.

He

was re-elected in 2011, and will


serve until December 2016.

Currently

the UN is discussing who


will be his replacement!

The UNs General Assembly in session in


New York

+3. Security Council


15

Council membersfive that are permanent


China
France
Russian Federation
United Kingdom
United States

Other

10 Council members are elected by the General


Assembly, and change every 2 years.

Discusses
Members

issues of Peace and Security.


must be available at a moments notice in case of

crisis
Decisions

made are legally binding and may be enforced by


sanctions (only UN organ like this!)

Sanction = an economic or military punishment of a country

+4. International Court of Justice


Also

known as The Hague or World Court

It

is the only one of UNs 6 main organs NOT


located in New York City. It is located in The
Netherlands.

This

body provides legal opinions on cases


and on the interpretation of International
Treaties.

15

judges are elected by the General


Assembly for their judicial expertise; they do
not represent their countries.

Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands

+5. Economic and Social Council


Coordinates

the economic and social


work of the United Nations and the UN
family of organizations

Plays

key role in fostering international


cooperation for development

Has

54 members, elected by General


Assembly for three-year terms

This

Body regularly works with NonGovernmental Organizations (NGOs).

+6. Trusteeship Council


It

protects dependent territories until


they become independent.

The

Trusteeship Council no longer


meets. It was suspended on Nov. 1,
1994 when Palau, the last trust
territory, became independent.

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QUESTION!
What organ would be used to
Make

a decision about whether to


send UN Peacekeeping troops to a
country?

Give

a legal opinion about an


international problem?

Vote

to pass a new international


treaty?

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Homework! Due next
Wednesday Oct. 5
Read

the International Relations


Packet (5 pages) and do the
worksheet!