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Nutrition and

Cycling
Performance
Presented by:
Andrew G. Vidales, B.S.
USA Level 3 Cycling Coach

Nutrition Cycling
Performance

Tools to use for pre ride evaluation


Eating and drinking before a
ride/rally
Nutrition/Hydration
Supplementation choices during a
ride/rally
Nutrition/Hydration Post Ride
Strategize your ride/rally

Nutrition Cycling
Performance
Gauge
your calorie intake for one
week
Dietary/Activity
Analysis
Nutrition Log. Use www.mypyramidtracker.gov

Nutrition Log. Use www.mypyramidtracker.gov


to determine your calorie intake. This will give
you an idea of the amount and type of calories
you ingest
Gauge your physical activity using the same
website. Monitor your energy balance. Write
down how you felt after your training ride/event
ride and analyze where you may lack nutrient
supplementation. Although this is not an exact
science it will help you develop a life long plan.

Nutrition and Cycling


Performance
The average human uses approximately 600800 hundred calories during 7.5 to 8 hours of
sleep. Athletes in a recovery mode (cyclists)
require more.
METS metabolic equivalents 1 MET =
consuming 3.5 ml of oxygen per kilogram per
kilogram of bodyweight
Sleep kcal expenditure formula: 1 MET x
3.5(1 met) x BW(kg)/200. EX. My expenditure
during sleep is 1 MET x 3.5 x 88(kg)/200=
1.54 kcal per minute x 420 minutes = 646.50

Nutrition and Cycling


Performance
Early studies
revealed that
men who ate a
Glycogen
Loading
carbohydrate rich diet for three days stored

carbohydrate rich diet for three days stored


nearly twice their normal amounts of muscle
glycogen. When asked to exercise to
exhaustion at 75% VO2 max their exercise
times significantly increased(1).
Several studies have shown that subjects
performances improve when they are given
carbohydrate feedings during exercise lasting
1-4 hours(2).
(1,2) Wilmore, J.H., Costill, D.L. Physiology of
Sport and Exercise. 2nd edition

Nutrition and Cycling


Performance
Maintaining blood glucose near normal levels allows the
muscles to obtain more energy from blood glucose.
Carbohydrate feedings during exercise do not spare glycogen
use but may spare liver glycogen enabling the exercising
muscles to rely more on blood glucose for energy late in
exercise(3).
Approximate glycogen stores are approximately as follows:
70kg man - 90g in the liver and 400g in muscle tissue. For a
60kg woman 70g in the liver and 300g in muscle tissue.
Pending intensity of the exercise (longer than 2 hours)
glycogen may be depleted at a rate of 3-4 grams per
minute(4).
3. Wilmore, J.H.,Costill, D.L. Physiology of Sport and Exercise
2ND edition
4. Pulled from www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/drinks.htm on April
3,2007

Nutrition and Cycling


Performance
It is suggested that a 500 to 800 kcal (125
200 g) carbohydrate diet 3 to 5 hours
before exercise be consumed(5).
My choice:
Cliff Bar - Banana Nut Bread 68g(2.4 oz)
250cal 43g carbs/10g protein
SPIZ - protein sport drink 97g
carbohydrate/20g protein
(5) Nieman, D.C. Fitness and Sports
Medicine. Palo Alto, CA: Bull. 1987

Nutrition and Cycling


Performance
The solutions of beverages containing glucose
polymers should be 4% to 20% carbohydrate and
be consumed every 15 20 minutes especially
during the last stages of long term endurance
events when blood glucose may be dropping.
However, solutions above 10% may be unsuitable
for some types of exercise, such as long
( >3hr) endurance events because of gastric upset and
decreased gastric emptying(6). Gatorade is at 6%
carbs.
(6) Baechle, T.R. Essentials of Strength Training and
Conditioning. p224

Nutrition and Cycling


Performance

In order to maximize your performance and to prevent


the proverbial bonk, EATING and DRINKING the meal of
your choice before, during, and after is essential.
When athletes eat only as much food as hunger dictates,
they OFTEN FAIL to consume enough carbohydrate to
compensate for the amount used during training or
competition. This imbalance between glycogen and
carbohydrate intake might explain in part why some
athletes become chronically fatigued and need 48 hours
or more to restore normal glycogen levels(7).
(7) Wilmore, J.H., Costill D.L. Physiology of Sport and
Exercise, 2nd ed. P.454

Nutrition and Cycling


Performance
The post event
meal Ride/Event
should contain a high
Post
carbohydrate content to help replenish glycogen

stores:
- Consumption of 125 200g within 2 hrs after an
event causes a more rapid restoration of glycogen
stores(8).
- Glycogen repletion may be maximized by consuming
0.7 to 3.0g of carbohydrate per kg of bodyweight
every 2 hr following exercise(9).
(8)Ivy, J.L. et al. J. Appl. Physiology. 64:1480-1485. 1988
(9)Friedman, J.E. et al. Sports Med. 11(4):232-243.
1991
Sherman, W.M. et al. Sport Nutr. 1(1):28-44. 1991

Nutrition and Cycling


Performance
Resting Metabolic
Tools toRate
use
Calculating Cycling Calorie
Expenditure
Calculating Target Heart Rate Zone
Guesstimating Lactate
Threshold/Onset of Blood Lactate
accumulation OBLA
Post ride chocolate consumption

Nutrition and Cycling


Performance
Calculating
RMR
Men
66+(6.23 x 190) +
(12.7 x
67)Harris
(6.8 x 52)
- 66
+ 1183.7 + 850.90
- 353.60 = 1747
Benedict
Equation
RMR
Women 655 + (4.35 x lbs) + (4.7 x ht.) (4.7 x
age)
(10)
- Activity Multipliers
1. sedentary 1.2 x 1747 = 2096 ( no exercise)
2. lightly active 1.375 x 1747 = 2402 (1-3 days)
3. moderately active 1.55 x 1747 = 2708( 3-5 days)
4. very active 1.725 x 1747 = 3013 (6-7 days) (11)

Nutrition and Cycling


Performance
Calculating
1 MET = consuming 3.5 Cycling
ml of oxygen per Caloric
kilogram per
kilogram of bodyweight subtracted from gross VO2
Expenditure
Gross mets resting
met = mets x 3.5 x 86.6/200 = kcal

per minute (12)


- cycling at 10 11.9 mph = 6 mets -1 met = 5 mets x 3.5
x 86.6/200 = 7.58 kcal per minute
- 12 13.9 mph = 8 mets( - 1 met) = 10.61 kcal per min
- 14 15.9 mph = 10 mets(- 1 met) = 13.64 kcal per min
- 16 19 mph = 12 mets ( - 1 met) = 16.67 kcal per min
- > 20 mph = 16 mets (- 1 met) = 22.73 kcal per min

Nutrition and Cycling


Performance
Karvonen
Method Heart Target
Rate Reserve Method

Calculating
Heart
more accurately depicts the intensity relative to
oxygen consumption Rate
220 age resting heart rate = 220 52 = 168 - 60
(RHR taken first thing in the am) = 108 (13)
Target HR range of 50% - 168 -60 x .50 + 60(rhr) = 114.00
Target HR range of 70% - 168 -60 x .70 + 60(rhr) = 135.60
Target HR range of 60% - 168 -60 x .60 + 60(rhr) = 124.80
Target HR range of 80% - 168 -60 x .80 + 60(rhr) = 146.40

Nutrition and Cycling


Performance
Lactate
is a by-product
of anaerobic metabolism
Lactate
Threshold/OBLA
that is produced at all exercise intensities. As

exercise intensity production increases, removal


decreases and it means the beginning of the
end for high intensity exercise.(14)
It can be measured on the road by measuring
heart rate in a 30 minute time trial or the HR
percentage-Karvonen Method(15)
Factors that affect the rate of lactate
accumulation include: 1)exercise intensity,
2)training status, 3)muscle fiber type
composition, 4)distribution of workload(16)

Nutrition and Cycling


Performance
OBLA Onset of Blood Lactate accumulation occurs at a
Lactate Threshold
slightly higher exercise intensity(17)
What does this all mean and how do we calculate this
while participating in a ride?
- I gauge it by fatigue during a ride e.g., Spokes and
Spurs
First 30 miles in 98 minutes 18 mph avg. +
At 45 miles - my approximate lactate threshold early
fatigue At 51 miles OBLA heavy leg feeling - I slowed
may pace to an active rest avg speed about 16.1 mph.
The second 32 miles was completed in 112 minutes
Total Ride Distance/Time: 62 miles - 3hr 30 min

Nutrition and Cycling


Performance
Know resting metabolic
rate daily calorie
Review
expenditure gives you an idea of calorie

expenditure gives you an idea of calorie


needs per day without cycling needs included.
Cycling calorie expenditure what you expend
per minute at an approximately range of mph.
Calculating target Hr ( Karvonen Method) at
50 70% for lesser trained and 60 80% for
more conditioned cyclists. This helps with
lactate threshold. Keeping your target heart
rate within the training zone or at the higher
end of the zone the longer you can prolong
lactate threshold and OBLA.

Nutrition and Cycling


Performance
To maximize
our efforts(contd)
we can 1) train properly
Review
before the ride. 2)ensure that weve maintained

our nutrition prior to and during the ride and 3)


Be knowledgeable and cognizant of how you feel
during the ride - onset of lactate threshold/OBLA
including your HR training zone
It is important to remember that you can
improve your lactate threshold/OBLA through
training. If you start out using the 50 70
percent training zone with proper training you
can improve that to the 60 80 percent and
greater in a few weeks.

Nutrition and Cycling


Performance
Chocolate consumption as much as
you want!
My preference is chocolate covered
strawberries!

QUESTIONS/FEEDBACK

Nutrition and Cycling


Performance
(10) Harris Benedict Equation Heyward,V.H. Advanced
Bibliography
Fitness Assessment and Exercise Prescription 4 ed., p208.
th

(11) Activity Multipliers


http://www.nyafb.com/2007/04/03/harris-benedict-formula
(12) Cycling Caloric Expenditure Heyward, V.H. Advanced
Fitness Assessment and Exercise Prescription 4 th ed., p103
(13) Karvonen Method ACSMs Guideline For Exercise
Testing And Prescription 7th ed., p.144
(14),(16) Lactate Threshold
http://www.velonews.com/article/8217
(15) Heart Rate percentage http://www.sport-fitnessadvisor.com/anaerobicthreshold.html
(17) OBLA http://www.sport-fitnessadvisor.com/anaerobicthreshold.html