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UNIT-1

LECTURE 2
LIGHT WEIGHT CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

Brig. S.K. Sharma (Retd.)


Pro Vice Chancellor and Professor
Department of Civil Engineering,
The Northcap University, Gurgaon

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INDEX
TYPES OF FOAMED CONCRETE
ADVANTAGES

&
DISADVANTAGES
OF
FOAMED CONCRETE
GROUP OF LIGHT WEIGHT CONCRETE (BY
AGGREGATES)

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TYPES OF FOAMED CONCRETE & THEIR USES


(BY DENSITIES)

Foamed concrete with density of 300-600


kg/m3: This concrete also called foamed cement or
foam concrete, is made of cement and foam only.
This material is used for thermal insulation of roof
and floors, soundproofing and is applied on rigid
floors. It is used for tennis courts and void filling
between brickwork leaves in underground walls,
insulation filling in hollow blocks and any other
filling situation where high insulating properties are
required.
Foamed concrete with density of 600-900
kg/m3: The constituents of this concrete are
cement sand and foam. It is used for the
manufacture
of precast blocks and panels for
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curtain and partition walls, slabs for false ceilings,

TYPES OF FOAMED CONCRETE (Continued)

Foamed concrete with density of 900-1200


kg/m3: This concrete made of cement, sand and
foam, is used in casting the concrete blocks and
panels for outer leaves of buildings, architectural
omamentation as well as partition walls, concrete
slabs for roofing and floor screeds.
Foamed concrete with density of 1200-1600
kg/m3: This lightweight foamed concrete containing
cement, sand and foam is used in precast panels of
any dimension for commercial and industrial use, insitu casting of walls, garden omaments and other
uses where structural concrete of light weight is
recommended.
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TYPES OF FOAMED CONCRETE (Continued)


Foamed lightweight concrete: The lightweight
matrix formed by the mixture of cement, water,
lightweight aggregate and foam, can be used
without the tendency to float when the mix is
vibrated. Typical aggregates used are expanded
shale or clay, pumice, vermiculite or fly ash. The
inclusion of such material shale or clay, pumice,
vermiculite or fly ash. The inclusion of such material
is only recommended if it is locally available as its
procurement from outside source may result in a
higher cost of the final product.

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TYPES OF FOAMED CONCRETE


(Continued)
Foamed dense-weight concrete: The addition of
up to 10 per cent foam into a normal denseweight concrete mix reduces its density and the cost.
The increase in the slump allows the water-tocement ratio to be reduced. Introduction of foam
eliminates bleed water, allows early troweling of the
surface, makes the concrete pumpable even in hot
weather and improves the resistance to freeze-thaw
attrition. Although the reduction in water-to-cement
ratio produces an increase in strength, it is usually
necessary to slightly increase the cement content of
the mix to maintain the specified compressive strength.

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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF


FOAMED CONCRETE/MORTARS
ADVANTAGES:
Economy: Due to accurate geometrical dimensions
the foam concrete blocks and panels may be laid
on glue, to avoid frost bridges in a wall and to make
the inner and outer plaster thinner. The weight of
foam concrete is about 10 to 80 per cent less than
the conventional vibrated concrete. This reduction
in weight leads to sufficient economy particularly
on foundations and basements. Foams concrete is
easy to work with using common tools. The saving
in cost is generally of the order of 10 per cent.
Durability: Foam concrete is a durable material
and deterioration with time is very small. It is as
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durable
as rock.

Advantages (Continued)
Thermal insulation and microclimate: As already covered,

foamed concrete has far superior thermal insulation properties


than the conventional normal-weight concrete. Due to high
temperature lag, buildings constructed with foam concrete
products may result in huge saving in the energy consumption
of the order of 20-35 per cent. Thus, the foamed concrete
which is almost a humidity-proof material prevents loss of
heat in winter by build up of very high temperatures in
summer, and controls air humidity in a room by absorbing and
releasing moisture as per environmental conditions. Thus, it
helps in creating a favorable microclimate.
Acoustic insulation: As brought out under properties,
foamed concrete has superior acoustic properties as
compared to other dense-weight products due to its excellent
sound absorption capacity; it does not reflect sound. In
buildings constructed with foamed concrete, the general
requirements for acoustic insulation are satisfied.
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Advantages (Continued.)
Fire safety: Foamed concrete is fire resistant, i.e., unlike

normal-weight concrete it neither spalls or splits or blows nor


gives off toxic gases under direct exposure to fire (typically for
foamed concrete with density less than 14 Kn/m3).
Aesthetics: Due to the high workability and light weight,
foamed concrete is extensively used in architectural
ornamentation.
Speed of construction: Due to he light weight of foamed
concrete, largesized blocks and panels as compared to bricks,
can be cast resulting in high speed of laying these large-sized
elements. Foam concrete is convenient to process and can be
cut to desired size; and to drill holes for electrical wiring,
sockets, and pipes. The speed of construction is further
enhanced through lower tolerance (+/-1 mm) in linear
dimensions.
Quality: It is amenable to efficient production with consistent
quality. Foamed concrete has minimum bleed water and
improved pumping characteristics.
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Advantages (Continued.)
Ecological compatibility: Foamed concrete is environment

friendly, both in the production process and product application,


its ecological compatibility is second only to wood.
Transportation: The available combination of weight, volume
and packaging makes foamed concrete a favorable construction
material which is convenient to transport by highway or railway
system. It has lower transportation costs as one cubic meter of
foam is produced only from one liter of concentrate and is mixed
at the site.
Wide Range of applications: Foamed concrete is ideal for
thermal and acoustic insulation of roofs, walls and floors;
subscreeds and filling under-floor voids; production of blocks and
panels for removable partitions in buildings. It is most suitable
for filling redundant voids such as disused tanks, sewer systems,
pipelines, and culverts-particularly where access is difficult.
Video: YouTube, Foamcrete: Building with simple panels, 05:24
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DISADVANTAGES
Compressive strength of foamed concrete reduce as its

density reduces.
The cellular structure of foamed concrete requires specialized
fasteners for the attachment of both structural framing
members
and
non-structural
fittings.
Metal-sleeved
expanding anchors are not used as they become loose. The
retention values of attached fixtures depend on the density of
the product. Particular attention needs to be given to those
areas where continuous impact occur, e.g., door jambs.
All drilled holes in foamed concrete require the use of high
speed twist drills suitable for steel or wood, (masonry drill
bits and hammers cannot be used).
To provide holding power to fastners, expansion and friction
grips need be provided within the concrete.
The production of foamed concrete requires a specially
designed equipments for mixing as the foam tends to float at
the
surface UNIVERSITY
of the mix and thus its effectiveness is
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considerably reduced. Injecting the foam into the mix rather

GROUPS OF LIGHT-WEIGHT CONCRETE


(BY AGGREGATES)
No-fines
Concrete

Light-weight
aggregate
concrete

Aerated Concrete
Chemical
Foaming mixture
aerating

Gravel

Clinker

Crushed stone

Foamed slag

Coarse clinker
Sintered
pulverized fuel
ash
Expanded clay or
shale

Expanded clay
Expanded shale

Pulverized fuel
ash

Expanded slate

Vermiculite

Pumice

Foamed Slag
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Aluminium
powder method
Hydrogen
peroxide and
bleaching
powder method

Preformed foam
Air-entrained
foam

CONCLUSION/FUTURE THOUGHTS
Structural light-weight aggregate concrete is a
concrete having 28 day compressive strength more
than 17 Mpa and 28 day air dried unit weight not
exceeding 1850kg/m3.
Structural light weight concrete is going to be
one of the important materials of construction. A
concrete which is light in weight and sufficiently
strong to be used in conjunction with steel
reinforcement will be a material which is more
economical than the conventional concrete.
Therefore, a concrete which combines strength and
lightness will have the unquestionalbe economic
advantage.
YouTube,
Aeated Concrete,
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UNIVERSITY Autoclaved
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06:37

Thank You

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