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# Guide Prof. J.O.

Chandle
(VJTI, Mumbai)

S. Ghosh
(Scientist , SAMEER)

## Presented ByRavi Pratap Tripathi

(142070015)
M.Tech(Control System)

Introduction
Object Tracking Techniques
Kalman Filter
Image Segmentation
Proposed Algorithm
Result
Conclusion

## Object tracking is important and challenging

task in many computer vision application.
This project describes the development of a
tissue tracking system for radiation therapy
using Kalman filter, the system is designed to
track organ position and shape due to
breathing or other internal process. For this
a simple algorithm is used known as Kalman
filter based on Otsus Thresholding method.

## Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment

method that employs high energy
radiation beams to destroy cancer cells by
damaging the ability of these cells to
reproduce.
In Image Guided radiotherapy (IGRT),
specific parts of the patients body are
exposed to the radiation emanating from
a treatment machine .

## The X-ray beams have to penetrate other

body tissues to reach the target area
during treatment process.
Prediction of respiratory motion is a very
critical issue in IGRT , so it may
possible healthy tissues also get affected.

## 1. Tools for measuring target position

where patientspecific treatment parameters are
defined.
2. Tracking-based delivery systems.
Presently for tracking based delivery
system we correlating breathing pattern
with CT scan image and apply radiation.

Stochastic Process
Density Function
Mean
Variance
Covariance
Least Square Estimation
Orthogonality Principle

## Linear prediction: A linear predictor is a

system which predicts the future output
signal as a linear function of a set of
inputs.
x(t ) a0 a1 x(t 1) .....

## Linear Extrapolation: As a special case of

linear prediction. Linear extrapolation
uses the two most recent samples
X(t) = x(t1) x(t2).
X(t) = x(t1) x(t2).

## Artificial neural networks: An

artificial neural network (ANN) is a
function
approximation
technique
modeled on the biologic processing of
brain neurons.

Wiener Filter:
The Wiener filter is the MSE-optimal
stationary linear filter for images

Contd.
Kalman filter: The Kalman filter is a method
for estimation of the internal state of a linear
dynamic system (Kalman 1960).
The Kalman filter is a very powerful tool
when it comes to controlling noisy
Systems.

Why Kalman??
it is a computer program.
No need of deterministic system
Copes with system dynamics, state
space.
Copes with missing data.
Copes with nonlinearity.

Kalman filter
Mathematical tool
Noisy data
Least square estimation

## System error sources

controls

system

System state
( desired, but not known)

Optimal
estimate of
system state

Observed
measurements
Measuring
devices

Measurement
error
sources

Kalman filter

Algorithm
Consider a system is given asx(k ) Ax(k 1) Bu vk (0, Q)

Prediction
Correction

z (k ) Hx(k ) wk (0, R )

x k / k 1 Axk 1/ k 1 Bu
Pk / k 1 APk 1/ k 1 A Qk 1

K k Pk / k 1 H kT ( H k Pk / k 1 H kT Rk ) 1
xk xk / k 1 K k ( zk H k xk / k 1 )
Pk / k ( I K k H k ) Pk / k 1

Original
previous
estimate

Original
error
estimate

Error in
estimate

Error in data
(measuremen
t)

input
data

Previous
estimate

yt

(1)-kalman gain

K k Pk / k 1 H kT ( H k Pk / k 1 H kT Rk ) 1

## (3)New error in estimate

Pk / k ( I K k H k ) Pk / k 1

## (2)Current state estimate

x k x k / k 1 K k ( z k H k xk / k 1 )

Update
estimate

Measured
value
y
t

## Predator Prey Example

Consider a hawk (which is at some
distance) is going to catch a prey.
prey is moving with some random
velocity and hawk continuously
monitor position of prey and trying to
catch prey.

Simulated output

## Tracking of quail using Kalman filter when Q=10 and R=0.02

KALMAN FILTER
(OAKF)
MAXIMUM LIKLIHOOD ESTIMATIONThe maximum likelihood takes the set
of values of the model parameters that
maximizes the likelihood function.
INOVATION ADAPTIVE ESTIMATIONIn innovation every instant we find the
residual information which gives the
new information.

Memory Attenuation
Estimation Algorithm
It is mainly used when modal of
system is not well defined in real
time application it is possible system
states are is not well defined so on
prediction of error covariance we use
a gain factor.

Structure of OAKF

## 1-D tracking using OAKF

Simulated output

2-D tracking

Image Segmentation
Segmentation divides an image into its
constituent regions or objects.
Segmentation of images is a difficult task
in image processing. Still under research.
Segmentation allows to extract objects in
images.
Segmentation is unsupervised learning.
Model based object extraction, e.g.,
template
matching,
is
supervised
learning.

Otsus Thresholding
Method
Based on a very simple idea: Find
the threshold that minimizes the
weighted within-class variance.
This turns out to be the same as
maximizing the between-class
variance.
Operates directly on the gray level
histogram [e.g. 256 numbers, P(i)],
so its fast (once the histogram is
computed).

Before Segmentation

After segmentation

## Tracking Of Fish Organ

In this example a fish is moving
randomly,
and we are going to track its
organ(Black Circle),which is also
change its position and shape with
movement of fish.

## Block Diagram of fish tracking Modal

Signal processing
block

bench

treatment

## Image Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) Trilogy

Future challenges/Future
Work
Fusion of data
Finding the modal parameter from
the data.

Presented paper
1. Ravi P. Tripathi, J.O.Chandle,Soumyabrata Ghosh, Tracking
of Object using Optimal Adaptive Kalman filter, 2nd IEEE
conference on Engineering and Technology (ICETECH 2016),
978-1-4673-9916-6/162016 IEEE. Coimbatore, India.
(Published)
2. Ravi P. Tripathi , J.O.Chandle, A.Das, S.Ghosh Object
Tracking using Otsus Thresholding method based on Kalman
Filter, IEEE TechSym 2016, IIT Kharagpur (Review Stage)
3. Aditya.K.Das, Ravi.P.Tripathi, Nilesh.S.Salokhe, J.O.Chandle
Noise Estimation for Images using Eigen Values and
Frobenius norm, International Journal Of Engineering And
Computer Science ISSN: 2319-7242 Volume 5 Issues 6 June
2016, Page No. 17045-17049

References
1. Jiang S, Zygmanski P, Kung J: Gated motion adaptivetherapy
(GMAT): Modification of IMRT MLC leaf sequence to compensate for
tumor motion. Med Phys 29:1347-1348(abstr), 2002.
2. Neicu T, Shirato H, Seppenwoolde Y: Synchronized moving aperture
radiation therapy (SMART): Average tumour trajectory for lung
patients. Phys Med Biol 48:587-598, 2003.
3. Kalman Filtering in Two Dimensions JOHN w. WOODS MEMBER,
IEEE, AND CLARK H. RADEWAN, MEMBER, IEEE.
4.Kalman filtering theory and practice using MATLAB,3rd edition by
Mohindar S. Grewal and Angus P. Andrews.
5. U Fuzhen, SU Yongqing, LIU Hao, Research of Optimized Adaptive
Kalman Filtering},2014 IEEE
6. Raman K. Mehra. Approaches to Adaptive Filtering. Automatic
Control, 1972; 17(5): 693-698.