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Counting Techniques

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Factorial Notation

The Fundamental Counting Principle

The Counting Principle for

Alternative Cases

Permutation

Combination

Factorial Notation

For any positive integer n, n! means:

n (n 1) (n 2) .

Examples:

4! = 43 2 1 = 24

The factorial symbol only affects the number it follows unless

grouping symbols are used.

3 5! = 3 5 4 3 2 1 = 360

( 3 5 )! = 15! = big number

Principle

If activity 1 can be done in n1 ways, activity 2 can be

done in n2 ways, activity 3 can be done in n3 ways,

and so forth; then the number of ways of doing these

activities on a specified order is the product of n1, n2,

n3 and so forth. In symbols,

n1 n2 n3 nn

Example 1:

Suppose a school has three

gates, in how many ways can

a student enter and leave

the school?

Example 2:

In a medical study, patients are

classified according to whether they

have blood type A, B, AB or O, and also

according to whether their blood

pressure is low, normal, or high. In

how many different ways can a patient

thus be classified.

Example 3:

A new car dealer offers a car in

four body styles, in ten colors, and

with a choice of three engines. In

how many ways can a person order

one of the cars?

Example 4:

A test consists of 15 multiple

choice questions, with each

question having four possible

answers. In how many different

ways can a student check off one

answer to each question?

Example 5:

How

many

different

4-digit

numbers can be formed from the

digits 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 if: (a)

repetition is not allowed? How

many of these numbers are even?

How many are these numbers are

odd? (b) repetition is allowed?

Alternative Cases

Suppose the ways of doing an activity can be

broken down into several alternative cases where

each case does not have anything in common with

the other cases. If case 1 can be done in n1 ways,

case 2 can be done in n2 ways, case 3 can be done

in n3 ways, and so on, then the number of ways

the activity can be done is the sum of n1, n2, n3

and so on cases. In symbols,

n1 n2 n3 nn

Permutation

The term permutation refers to the

arrangement of objects with reference

to order or it may be defined as an

arrangement of all or part of a set of

objects.

Linear Permutation

The number of permutations of n

distinct objects taken all together is

n!.

Example:

How many different signals can be

made using five flags if all flags must

be used in each signal?

r at a Time

The arrangement of n objects in a specific order using r

objects at a time is given by

n!

n Pr

n r !

where r < n

Example:

Suppose there are eight machines, but only three

spaces in the display room available for the machines.

In how many different ways can the 8 machines be

arranged in the three available spaces

Circular Permutation

The arrangement of n objects in a circular

pattern is given by the formula

P n 1!

Example:

In how many ways can six persons be seated

around a circular table?

All Different

of which r1 are alike, r2 are alike, r3 are alike,

etc. is

n!

r1!r2 !r3! rn !

Example:

How many different permutations can be made

from the letters of the word STATISTICS?

Combination

Suppose we are interested only in the number of

different ways that r objects can be selected

from a given number of objects. If the order of

the objects is not important, the total number of

orders or arrangement is called combination. The

number of combinations of n objects taken r at a

time is denoted by nCr and is given by the

formula:

n!

n

Cr

n r !r!

Example 1:

In order to survey the opinions of

costumers at local malls, a

researcher decides to select 5

malls from a certain area with a

total of 9 malls. How many

different ways can the selection

be made?

Example 2:

The general manager of a fastfood restaurant chain must select

6 restaurants from 10 for a

promotional program. How many

different possible ways can this

selection be done?

Problem 1:

In how many ways can 5 people

line up for a group picture if (a)

two want to stand next to each

other? (b) two refuse to stand

next to each other?

Problem 2:

In how many ways can 8

beads be put together to

form a round bracelet?

Problem 3:

A committee of 5 people must

be selected from 5 accountants

and 8 educators. How many

ways can the selection be done

if there are 3 educators in the

committee?

Problem 4:

In a club there are 8 women

and 5 men. A committee of 4

women and 2 men is to be

chosen. How many possibilities

are there?

Problem 5:

A committee of 5 people must be

selected from 5 accountants and 8

educators. How many ways can the

selection be done if there are at

least

3

educators

in

the

committee?

Problem 6:

How many different triangles

can be formed using the

vertices

of

an

octagon?

Pentagon? Hexagon?

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