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Energy Resources

It is defined as capacity to do work. It is an abstract concept, we


can not see it but even we have to pay for it.
Classification of Energy Resources
1. A) Commercial fuels: Coal, lignite, petroleum products,
natural gas and electricity.
B) Non commercial fuels: Fuel wood, cow dung, agricultural
waste etc.
2. A) Primary energy resources: which are directly obtained
from natural sources. E.g. fossil fuels, nuclear fuels, hydro
fuels, wind energy, tidal energy and geothermal energy.
B) Secondary energy resources: Which are derived from
primary sources. E.g. petrol, diesel, electricity etc.

3. A)Conventional energy resources: Includes fossil fuels


( coal, petroleum and natural gas), water and nuclear energy.
B) Non-conventional energy resources: Includes solar, wind
tidal, geothermal energy etc.
4. A) Renewable energy resources: Theses are inexhaustible
and can be replenished or reproduced again and again. E.g.
wind, water, geothermal, ocean, biomass energy.
B) Non-renewable energy resources: which are exhaustible
land can not be replaced or replaced very slowly. E.g. fossil
fuels, nuclear energy etc.
Alternate Energy Source
Solar Energy:
. Radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by
humans since ancient times.

It accounts for most common available renewable energy on


earth.
Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either
passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture,
convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques
include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal
collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques
include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with
favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and
designing spaces that naturally circulate air.
Applications:
Solar water heating: Solar hot water systems use sunlight to
heat water. In low geographical latitudes (below 40 degrees)
from 60 to 70% of the domestic hot water use with temperatures
up to 60 C can be provided by solar heating systems.

Heating ,cooling and ventilation of residential buildings:


Solar heating, cooling and ventilation technologies are using
about 30% portion of this energy.
Common thermal mass materials used for this purpose include
stone, cement and water. Historically they have been used in
arid climates or warm temperate regions to keep buildings cool
by absorbing solar energy during the day and radiating stored
heat to the cooler atmosphere at night. However they can be
used in cold temperate areas to maintain warmth as well. The
size and placement of thermal mass depend on several factors
such as climate, day lighting and shading conditions.
A solar chimney (or thermal chimney, in this context) is a
passive solar ventilation system composed of a vertical shaft
connecting the interior and exterior of a building.

As the chimney warms, the air inside is heated causing an


updraft that pulls air through the building.
Agriculture and horticulture:
Greenhouses convert solar light to heat, enabling year-round
production and the growth (in enclosed environments) of
special crops and other plants, not naturally suited to the local
climate.

Hybrid solar lighting:


It is an active solar method of providing interior illumination.
HSL systems collect sunlight using focusing mirrors that
track the Sun and use optical fibers to transmit it inside the
building to supplement conventional lighting. In single-story
applications these systems are able to transmit 50% of the
direct sunlight received.

Water treatment:
Solar distillation can be used to make saline or brackish water
potable.
Solar water disinfection (SODIS) involves exposing waterfilled plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles to
sunlight for several hours.[49] Exposure times vary depending
on weather and climate from a minimum of six hours to two
days during fully overcast conditions.[50] It is recommended by
the World Health Organization as a viable method for
household water treatment and safe storage. Over two million
people in developing countries use this method for their daily
drinking water.

Solar energy may be used in a water stabilisation pond to


treat waste water without chemicals or electricity.

A further environmental advantage is that algae grow in such


ponds and consume carbon dioxide in photosynthesis,
although algae may produce toxic chemicals that make the
water unusable.
Solar water disinfection:

Electrical generation:
Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity,
either directly using photovoltaics (PV), or indirectly using
concentrated solar power (CSP). CSP systems use lenses or
mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight
into a small beam. PV converts light into electric current using
the photoelectric effect.
The 80 MW Sarnia Photovoltaic Power Plant in Canada, is the
worlds largest photovoltaic plant

Solar vehicles:

Australia hosts the World Solar Challenge where solar cars


like the Nuna3 race through a 3,021 km course from Darwin
to Adelaide.

solar powered flight

Solar Cooking:
Solar cookers use sunlight for cooking, drying and
pasteurization. They can be grouped into three broad
categories: box cookers, panel cookers and reflector cookers.

The Solar Bowl in Auroville, India, concentrates sunlight on


a movable receiver to produce steam for cooking.

Merits
Solar energy is a renewable resource. Although it cannot be
utilized at night or on cloudy days, its availability may be
generally relied upon day after day. The solar energy supply
will last as long as the sun.

Solar energy is non-polluting. Of all the advantages of


solar energy over oil, this is perhaps the most important.
The burning of oil releases carbon dioxide and other
greenhouse gases into the air.
Solar cells are long-lasting and require very little maintenance.
Although solar panels and their accessories (solar lights, etc.)
may be expensive to buy at the onset, money is saved in the
long run. This is because energy from the sun is widely
available and free.

Solar powered lights and other solar powered products are


very easy to install. This is because there are few wiring issues
and little need to ever dig supporting trenches.
Demerits
The Solar Cells and Solar Panels that are needed to harness
solar energy tend to be very expensive when you first purchase
them.
Solar power cannot be harnessed during a storm, on a cloudy
day or at night. This limits how much power can be saved for
future days. Some days you may still need to rely on oil to
power your home.