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THERMOACOUSTIC

REFRIGERATION

THERMOACOUSTIC REFRIGERATION -DHEEMANTHA BHAT BASAVARAJA METI

-DHEEMANTHA BHAT BASAVARAJA METI

THERMOACOUSTIC REFRIGERATION -DHEEMANTHA BHAT BASAVARAJA METI

Introduction

One ordinarily thinks of a sound wave as consisting only of coupled pressure and position oscillations. In fact, temperature oscillations accompany the pressure oscillations. In an extremely intense sound wave in a pressurized gas, these thermoacoustic effects can be harnessed. Whereas typical engines and refrigerators rely on crankshaft-coupled pistons or rotating turbines, thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators have no moving parts. This simplicity, coupled with reliability and relatively low cost, has the potential of thermoacoustic devices for practical use.

Introduction One ordinarily thinks of a sound wave as consisting only of coupled pressure and position

Principle

Sound waves travel in a longitudinal fashion. They travel with successive compression and rarefaction of the medium in which they travel. This compression and expansion respectively lead to the heating and cooling of the gas. This principle is employed to bring about the refrigeration effect in a thermoacoustic refrigerator.

Principle Sound waves travel in a longitudinal fashion. They travel with successive compression and rarefaction of
Principle Sound waves travel in a longitudinal fashion. They travel with successive compression and rarefaction of

Components of Thermoacoustic Refrigerator

Acoustic driver Stack Heat exchanger Resonator

Components of Thermoacoustic Refrigerator Acoustic driver Stack Heat exchanger Resonator

LOUDSPEAKER

The loudspeaker, which acts as the driver, sustains acoustic standing waves in the gas at the fundamental resonance frequency of the resonator. The acoustic standing wave displaces the gas in the channels of the stack while compressing and expanding respectively leading to heating and cooling of the gas.

LOUDSPEAKER The loudspeaker, which acts as the driver, sustains acoustic standing waves in the gas at

HEAT EXCHANGER

The heat exchangers employed in a thermoacoustic refrigerator influence the acoustic field created in the resonator. There are many design constraints such as porosity of the heat exchanger and high heat transfer coefficient for efficiency. Due to these constraints, special kind of heat exchangers are used. One typical micro channel aluminum heat exchanger is shown below.

HEAT EXCHANGER The heat exchangers employed in a thermoacoustic refrigerator influence the acoustic field created in

Microchannel Aluminium Heat Exchanger

Microchannel Aluminium Heat Exchanger
Microchannel Aluminium Heat Exchanger

STACK

STACK  It is also called as regenerator.  The most important piece of a thermoacoustic
STACK  It is also called as regenerator.  The most important piece of a thermoacoustic

It is also called as regenerator. The most important piece of a thermoacoustic device is the stack. The stack consists of a large number of closely spaced surfaces that are aligned parallel to the to the resonator tube. In a usual resonator tube, heat transfer occurs between the walls of cylinder and the gas.

STACK  It is also called as regenerator.  The most important piece of a thermoacoustic

RESONATOR

This the part of refrigerator which is only there for maintaining the acoustic wave. Because it is a dead volume which causes heat loss and adds bulk, quarter wavelength resonators are preferred over half wavelength

RESONATOR This the part of refrigerator which is only there for maintaining the acoustic wave. Because

WORKING

When a sound wave is sent down a half-wavelength tube with a vibrating diaphragm or a loudspeaker, the pressure pulsations make the gas inside slosh back and forth. This forms regions where compression and heating take place, plus other areas characterized by gas expansion and cooling.

WORKING When a sound wave is sent down a half-wavelength tube with a vibrating diaphragm or

A thermoacoustic refrigerator is a resonator cavity that contains a stack of thermal storage elements (connected to hot and cold heat exchangers) positioned so the back-and-forth gas motion occurs within the stack. The oscillating gas parcels pick up heat from the stack and deposit it to the stack at a different location. The device "acts like a bucket brigade" to remove heat from the cold heat exchanger and deposit it at the hot heat exchanger, thus forming the basis of a refrigeration unit.

A thermoacoustic refrigerator is a resonator cavity that contains a stack of thermal storage elements (connected

THERMOACOUSTIC CYCLE

The

figure

traces

the

basic

thermoacoustic cycle for a packet

of gas, a collection of gas

molecules

that

act

and

move

together. Starting from point 1, the packet of gas is compressed and moves to the left. As the packet is compressed, the sound wave does work on the

packet of gas, providing the power for the refrigerator.

THERMOACOUSTIC CYCLE  The figure traces the basic thermoacoustic cycle for a packet of gas, a
THERMOACOUSTIC CYCLE  The figure traces the basic thermoacoustic cycle for a packet of gas, a

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As the packet is compressed, the sound wave does work on the packet of gas, providing the power for the refrigerator.

 As the packet is compressed, the sound wave does work on the packet of gas,

When the gas packet is at maximum compression, the gas rejects the heat back into the stack since the temperature of the gas is now higher than the temperature of the stack.

 As the packet is compressed, the sound wave does work on the packet of gas,

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In the second phase of the cycle, the gas is returned to the initial state. As the gas packet moves back towards the right, the sound wave expands the gas. Although some work is expended to return the gas to the initial state, the heat released on the top of the stack is greater than the work expended to return the gas to the initial state. This process results in a net transfer of heat to the left side of the stack.

 In the second phase of the cycle, the gas is returned to the initial state.
 In the second phase of the cycle, the gas is returned to the initial state.

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Finally, in step 4, the packets of gas reabsorb heat from the cold reservoir. The heat transfer repeats and

hence

the

thermoacoustic

refrigeration cycle.

 Finally, in step 4, the packets of gas reabsorb heat from the cold reservoir. 

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ADVANTAGES OF TAR

No moving parts for the process, so very reliable and a long life span. Environmentally friendly working medium (air, noble gas). Use of simple materials with no special requirements, which are commercially available in large quantities and therefore relatively cheap. Also sonic compression or ‘sound wave refrigeration’ uses sound to compress refrigerants which replace the traditional compressor and need for lubricants.

ADVANTAGES OF TAR  No moving parts for the process, so very reliable and a long

ADVANTAGES OF TAR

On

the

same

technology base

a

large variety of

applications can be covered. Thermoacoustic refrigeration works best with inert gases such as helium and argon, which are harmless, nonflammable, nontoxic, non-ozone depleting or global warming and is judged inexpensive to manufacture.

ADVANTAGES OF TAR  On the same technology base a large variety of applications can be

DISADVANTAGES OF TAR

Efficiency: Thermoacoustic refrigeration is currently less efficient than the traditional refrigerators. Lack of suppliers producing customized components. Talent Bottleneck: There are not enough people who have expertise on the combination of relevant disciplines such as acoustic, heat exchanger design etc.

DISADVANTAGES OF TAR  Efficiency: Thermoacoustic refrigeration is currently less efficient than the traditional refrigerators. 

APPLICATIONS

Chip cooling

Electronic equipment cooling on navy ships:

this application, a speaker generates sound waves. Again a thermo acoustic pump is used to provide the cooling.

Upgrading industrial waste heat:

Acoustic energy is created by means of industrial waste heat in a thermo acoustic engine. In a thermo acoustic heat pump this acoustic energy is used to upgrade the same waste heat to a useful temperature level.

APPLICATIONS  Chip cooling  Electronic equipment cooling on navy ships: this application, a speaker generates

FUTURE SCOPE

Experimenting with different frequencies and stack placements could yield greater efficiency Improvements to the resonator tube would involve further research into effects that differently shaped tubes would affect on the thermoacoustic effect Modeling the acoustic properties by computer simulation and predict efficient tube-frequency combinations .

FUTURE SCOPE  Experimenting with different frequencies and stack placements could yield greater efficiency  Improvements

CONCLUSION

The Thermoacoustic Refrigeration System consists of no moving parts. Hence the maintenance cost is also low. The system is not bulky. It doesn’t use any refrigerant and hence has no polluting effects Thermo acoustic refrigerators were already being considered for specialized applications, where their simplicity, lack of lubrication and sliding seals.

CONCLUSION  The Thermoacoustic Refrigeration System consists of no moving parts. Hence the maintenance cost is

REFERENCES

/media/File:Poese.jpg International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering

(IJIRAE)

Issue 2, Volume 2 (February 2015)

Page -160 A Study of

Thermoacoustic Refrigeration System Using porous material for heat transfer enhancement in heat exchanger: ReviewInternational Journal of Heat and Technology 31(2) · December 2012 Tabletop thermoacoustic refrigerator for demonstrations Daniel A. Russell and Pontus Weibulla http://www.slideshare.net/Nimalan_I/thermoacoustic-refrigeration

REFERENCES <a href=https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Engineering_Acoustics/Thermoacoustics# /media/File:Poese.jpg International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) Issue 2, Volume 2 (February 2015) Page -160 A Study of Thermoacoustic Refrigeration System Using porous material for heat transfer enhancement in heat exchanger: Review   International Journal of Heat and Technology 31(2) · December 2012 Tabletop thermoacoustic refrigerator for demonstrations Daniel A. Russell and Pontus Weibulla http://www.slideshare.net/Nimalan_I/thermoacoustic-refrigeration " id="pdf-obj-21-29" src="pdf-obj-21-29.jpg">

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