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Biologically

Important
Disaccharides
Sucrose

Maltose

CH2OH
H

CH2OH

O H
OH

O
OH

CH2OH

OH

OH

OH
O

CH2OH

H
H

OH

OH
H

H
OH

OH

CH2OH

CH2OH
O
H
OH

OH

OH
H

CH2OH

O H
OH

Lactose

OH
O

O
H

H
H

O OH

OH

OH

Disaccharides
consists of two
monosaccharides (simple
sugar)
link together by covalent
bond
(C6H12O6)n, where n = 2

Maltose
altobios or malt sugar
two glucose units
a reducing sugar
M.F = C12H12O11

Maltose
CH2OH
H

CH2OH

O H
OH

O
OH

OH

O
OH
H

H
OH

OH

Cellobiose
6 CH2OH

6 CH2OH

H
4

H
OH

OH

H
1

OH

OH

H
OH

H
1

OH

maltose

OH

6 CH2OH

H
OH

6 CH2OH

H
2

OH

H
O

cellobiose

H
OH

OH

OH
1

Lactose
consists of one glucose and
galactose units
found in milk of all mammals
milk sugar
M.F = C12H12O11

CH2OH

Lactose
H

CH2OH
OH
OH
H

OH
O

O
H

H
H

O OH

OH

OH

Sucrose
important carb in plants
table sugar, cane sugar, beet
sugar
saccharose

consists of fructose and


glucose units
M.F = C12H12O11

CH2OH

Sucrose

O H
OH

OH
H

OH
O

CH2OH
O
H
OH
CH2OH

H
OH

Biologically Important
Polysaccharides
Starch

Glycoge
n

Cellulos
e

Polysaccharides
long carbohydrate molecules
of repeated monomer units
joined together by glycosidic
bond

homopolysaccharide
(homoglycan)

heteropolysaccharide
(heteroglycan)
(CxH2O)x, where x = large

Starch
sterchen

stiffen;
amylum starch
consists of large number of
glucose
storage compound in plants
made up of amylose and
amylopectin

Amylose
a straight chain structure
formed by 1,4 glycosidic
bonds between -D-glucose
molecules.
the amylose chain forms a
6CH OH
CH OH
CH OH
CH OH
CH OH
helix.
O
O H H
O H H
O H H 5
O H H
2

H
OH

H 1

OH
H

OH

H
4 OH
H

H 1

H
OH

H
OH

OH

OH

amylose

OH

H
OH

H
OH

OH

Amylose
Helix

Amylopectin
a glucose polymer with
mainly -(14) linkages, but
it also has branches formed
by -(16) linkages.
CH2OH

CH2OH
O

H
OH

OH

H
O

OH
CH2OH
H

OH
H

O
H
OH

OH

CH2OH
O

H
OH

OH

H
O

O
H
OH
H

H
OH

H
O

amylopectin

H
1
O
6 CH2
5
H
OH
3
H

CH2OH
O
H
2
OH

H
1
O

CH2OH
O

H
4 OH
H

H
OH

H
O

O
H
OH

H
OH

OH

Amylose vs.
Amylopectin

CH2OH
H

CH2OH

H
OH

OH

OH
CH2OH
H

OH
H

OH

OH
H

OH

O
H
OH

H
O

H H 5
H
1
4
H
OH
O

1
O
6 CH2
5
H
OH

CH2OH
O
H

H 1
OH

H H

4
O

2
OH

H
OH
H

H
O

OH

H
OH

amylose

H H
O

H
OH

H
OH
OH

CH2OH
O

H
OH

CH2OH
O

H
OH

CH2OH
O

CH2OH

OH

amylopectin

3
H

OH

O
H
OH

H
OH

6CH OH

CH2OH
H

CH2OH
O

H
OH

H
OH

H H
O

O
H
OH

H
OH

OH

Glycogen
Storage polysaccharide in
animals (animal starch)
Glycogen is stored energy
for the organism
Similar
in
structure
to
amylopectin, only difference
from starch: number of
branches

Glycogen
CH2OH
H

CH2OH
O

H
OH

OH

H
O

OH
CH2OH
H

OH
H

O
H
OH

OH

CH2OH
O

H
OH

OH

H
O

O
H
OH
H

H
OH

H
O

glycogen

H
1
O

6 CH2
H 5
H
4 OH
3
H

CH2OH
O
H
2
OH

H
1
O

CH2OH
O

H
4 OH
H

H
OH

H
O

O
H
OH

H
OH

OH

Glycogen

Glycogen

Cellulose
Cellulose, a major constituent of
plant cell walls, consists of long
linear chains of glucose with
(14) linkages.
Every other glucose is flipped
over, due to linkages

Cellulose
6CH OH

CH2OH
H

O
H
OH

H
1
4
H
O
OH

OH

H
H

OH

H 1 O
2 H
OH

O
H
OH

CH2OH

CH2OH

CH2OH

O
H
OH

OH

cellulose

O
H
OH

OH

OH

H
H

H
H

OH