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Demodex Canis

By: Michelle Evans

Whats that name?

Scientific

Demodex canis

Common Names

Mange Mites

Hosts

Canine

Demodex canis

Demodex injai

Demodex sp. cornei

Feline

Demodex cati

Demodex gatoi

Demodex sp.

Demodex canis

Demodex cati

Life Cycle

Anatomy of Demodex spp.

Six-legged larvae hatch from fusiform-shaped eggs and undergo


several molts to become eight-legged nymphs and ultimately
adults. (CAPC, 2016)

Baby animals get the mite from their momma skin-skin contact

Most do not develop clinical disease

All stages reside within the lumen of hair follicles

Eggs

Larvae

Nymphs

Adults

Life Cycle

Host Associations & Transmission


Between Hosts

Demodex are host-adapted, and do not cross-infest from dogs to cats.

They are not transmitted to humans.

Transmission

Neonates from mother

Direct contact between older animals

Remember Demodicosis is not contagious

Demodicosis often occurs where an underlying immune defect is present.

Pathophysiology

Demodex canis mites live within


hair follicles and sebaceous
glands.

Mites spend their entire life on


host.

" The pathogenesis of Demodicosis


is complex and not completely
understood; evidence of
hereditary predisposition for
generalized disease is strong.
Immunosuppression, natural or
iatrogenic, can precipitate the
disease in some cases. (MERCK)

Diseases caused & Pathogens


Transmitted

Canine Demodicosis occurs when large numbers of Demodex canis mites


inhabit hair follicles and sebaceous glands. (MERCK)

Clinical Signs

Patchy Alopecia

Erythema

Often secondary superficial or deep pyoderma

Mild or severe Dermatitis

Enlarged Lymph nodes

Only pruritic if a secondary bacterial pyoderma is present

Localized or Generalized

Canine Demodicosis
Localized Head & Limbs

Generalized Anywhere

Mild, nonpruritic, patchy alopecia most common in puppies >6 months

Most cases resolve on their own

Alopecia
Erythema

Often secondary to superficial or deep pyoderma

Enlarged Lymph nodes

Caused by an overgrowth of mites due to an underlying immune defect


or systemic disease

Which type of Demodicosis is this?

Generalized!

Prevalence
Demodex

canis

Common

Demodex
Very

rare

cati

Diagnostic Testing
Deep

skin scrape of infected areas of alopecia

Pluck

hairs, apply to a slide with mineral oil

Deep Skin Scrape Procedure

Use a 10 scalpel blade and


scrape the infected areas in
an outward motion

Scrape until blood is drawn

Wipe the blade onto a


microscope slide

Apply 2 drops mineral oil

Examine!

Treatment & Prevention


Localized Demodicosis

Generalized Demodicosis

Requires Aggressive Treatment

Self-resolving

No treatment

Use of effective miticide


Evaluate for underlying cause

Treat that!

Antibiotic therapy Pyoderma

Spay female dogs

Environmental Factors??
Demodex

canis is, again, part of the normal


flora of the skin of dogs.

They

will all have it, no matter the


environment

Public Health Considerations


Demodex
No

are host specific

Zoonotic Potential

Demodicosis occurs when an underlying immune


defect is present, it is not contagious

Study Points

NOT ZOONOTIC

Demodex canis is part of the normal skin flora of all dogs

Demodicosis occurs secondary to an underlying immune defect or systemic disease

Alopecia, Erythema, Dermatitis

Demodex is nonpruritic unless pyoderma is present

Localized Self-resolving (puppies) Generalized requires aggressive treatment

Diagnosed with deep skin scrape of plucked hairs

Treat with Amitraz dip, Ivermectin, Milbemycin oxime, topical moxidectin, and
injectable doramectin

Works Cited

"Demodex (Mange Mite)." CAPC Vet. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Oct. 2016.

Aiello, Susan E. Merck Veterinary Manual. N.p.: Merck &, Incorporated, 2016.
Print.

"Demodectic Mange." VetFolio. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Oct. 2016.

Douglas J. DeBoer, DVM, DACVD, University of WisconsinMadison. "Skin


Scraping for External Parasites." Home Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Oct. 2016.

Moriello, DVM Karen A. "Diagnosis of Demodicosis in Dogs & Cats." Home Page.
N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Oct. 2016.