You are on page 1of 10

Alternative Electrochemical

Processing Parameters for BIDRIWARE CRAFTS


AKSHAYKUMAR VARMA
Under Guidance of

DR. LAKSHMAN NEELAKANTAN

Background

A end 17th century, Bidriware Hookah base at Lourve

Bahamani Sultans in the 14th 15th Century


Originted in Persia--Turkish, Persian and Arabic influences.
Never fading black background with sparkling silver inlay
In India seen near Bidar fort in Karnataka
The bidar fort sand is used for formation of black patina.

The aim of this project is to find a viable chemical substitute.


Source:- La Niece, S. and Martin, G. 1987. The technical examination of bidri ware, Studies in
Conservation.

Manufacture of Bidri Ware


1

Source:- http://www.dsource.in/resource/bidri-ware-hyderabad/making-process

Bidri Alloy Composition


Bidri is an alloy of zinc with some copper
between 2 and 8%

Lead, tin and iron are sometimes present.

Issues And Objectives


The Fort of Bidar is a heritage. Many artisans dont
have access to its sand.
Objective

Identification of alternative synthetic chemical


material

Electrochemical characterization of zinc copper


alloy in synthetic solution.

Comparison with natural bidri in terms of finish

Analysis
Casting boiled in bidar sand and Ammonium chloride.
Results in black surface.
Has to be oxide of copper.
Ammonium chlorides role is dissolution of zinc.

Analysis
La niece and Martin postulated that ammonium chloride
preferentially dissolves the zinc from bidri resulting in
copper-enriched surface

The patina is analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) main


compounds analyzed in the patina1.Simonkolleite, zinc hydroxychloride (Zn5(OH)8Cl2)
2.Zincite, zinc oxide (ZnO)
3.Cuprite, copper I oxide (Cu2O).

Examined using FE SEM-EDX.


The alloy composition of the unpatinated surface is
approximately 4% copper and 96% zinc.

Patinated area, dendrites were found to contain 12-30%


copper and the interdendritic phase 2-5% copper.
Source:- La Niece, S. and Martin, G. 1987. The technical examination of bidri ware, Studies in
Conservation.

Results and Discussion

The traditional patination process uses the soil fort of Bidar

Literature says soil is saturated with salts because the walls are commonly used as a
latrine.

These contain nitrates which act as oxidizing agents


Casting made of 95% Zinc, 5% copper with help of MTech Student Arul.
Substitute for the soil is to make a solution of potassium nitrate (1 part), ammonium
chloride (4 parts).

Nitrate is expected to oxidize copper


Measuring OCP during patnations.

x
Polished

After Experiment

After30 days

Outlook
The results show that we are getting the black
patina.

It degrades over time.


I will tweak parameters such as concentration ratio,
adding other elements such as Fe2O3, CuSO4 or
adding some sand.

Comparison with natural bidri in terms of finish by


performing surface and morphological
characterization.

Find the best Alternative.

THANK YOU