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Get Ready for taking

the TOEFL,
Proficiency Test
Prepared and Presented by
Nila Ayu Anggraeni,SS

GENERAL STRATEGIES FOR LISTENING COMPREHENSION

Be familiar with the directions. The directions on every paper TOEFL test are the
same, so it is not necessary to spend time reading the directions carefully when you
take the test. You should be completely familiar with the directions before the day of
the test.
Listen carefully to the passages. You should concentrate fully on what the speakers
are saying on the recording because you will hear the recording one time only.
Know where the easier and the more difficult questions are generally found. Within
each part of the Listening Comprehension section on the paper test, the questions
generally progress from easy to difficult.
Be familiar with the pacing of the test. You have 12 seconds between each question
on the recording, so you must answer each question within 12 seconds and then be
prepared for the next question on the recording.
Never leave any answers blank on your answer sheet. Even if you are not sure of the
correct response, you should answer each question. There is no penalty for
guessing.
Use any remaining time to look ahead at the answers to the questions that follow.
When you finish with one question, you may have time to look ahead at the answers
to the next question

STRATEGIES FOR PART A

As you listen to each short dialogue, focus on the second line of the
conversation. The answer to the question is generally found in the
second line.
Keep in mind that the correct answer is probably a restatement of a
key word or idea in the second line of the dialogue. Think of possible
restatements.
Keep in mind that certain structures and expressions are tested
regularly in the short dialogues.
Listen for these structures and expressions:
structures (passives, negatives, wishes, conditions)
functional expressions (agreement, uncertainty, suggestion,
surprise)
idiomatic expressions (two-part verbs, three-part verbs, idioms)
Keep in mind that these questions generally progress from easy to
difficult. This means that questions I through 5 will be the easiest
and questions 26 through 30 will be the hardest.

Read the answers and choose the best answer to each question.
Remember to answer each question even if you are not sure of the
correct response. Never leave any answers blank.
Even if you do not understand the complete dialogue, you can still
find the correct answer.
Be prepared for the next question. You have only 12 seconds
between questions.
If you only understand a few words or ideas in the second line,
choose the answer that contains a restatement of those words or
ideas.
If you do not understand anything at all in the second line of the
conversation, choose the answer that sounds the most different
from what you heard.
Never choose an answer because it sounds like what you heard in
the dialogue.

STRATEGIES FOR PART B AND C

Part B and C in the TOEFL paper based test contain longer conversation.
For each conversation you will be asked several questions. These two parts
may consist of casual conversation, academic discussion, and academic
lecture.
While you are looking at the answer, you should try to do the following:
Anticipate the topics of the conversation you will hear
Anticipate the questions for each of the groups of answers
Listen carefully to the first line of the conversation. The first line of the
conversation often contains the main idea, subject, or topic, and you will
often be asked this type of question
As you listen to the conversation, draw conclusions about the situation of
the conversation: who is talking, where and when the conversation takes
place, which course this lecture might be given in (for Part C)
As you listen to the conversation, follow along with the answers in your test
book and try to determine the correct answers. Detail questions are
generally answered in order in the talk, and the answers often sound the
same as what is said on the recording.
You should guess even if you are not sure.

AGo through
Patterned
Plan
of
Listening
the computer tutorial as quickly as you can.
Be familiar with each parts directions before the test begins.
Mark DISMISS DIRECTIONS as soon as the directions appear.
SET your headset VOLUME to the appropriate level.
IGNORE PHOTOGRAPHS OF SPEAKERS. They have nothing to do with the
content and contain no helpful information.
LISTEN CAREFULLY to what is stated, trying to grasp the overall concept.
REMEMBER GRAMMATICAL RULES and other techniques.
Look at the answer choices. If you do not find the answer immediately, try to
ELIMINATE INCORRECT ANSWER CHOICES. Watch for words or sounds
that are added as distractions.
CHOOSE THE BEST ANSWER as quickly as possible and move on.
Pace yourself and watch the time.
Click NEXT and CONFIRM in order to move to the next question.
Never worry about how you answered a prior question.
If you run out of time, leave the last questions blank. Do not guess.

GRAMMAR

Some Strategies to work with problems with


grammar of English

1.

Identify the Subject and Verb in the sentence, make sure if the
sentence already contains Subject and verb, if No then try to locate
the options that contain subject and Verb, then consider the
agreement between the two.
If the problem lies on the Subject it must be dealt with noun so then
check if the articles or determiners, plurality, or noun clause, or
gerund or to infinitive is used properly. Or, if there is a blank space
after subject, it means that we are going to deal with the adjective
clause or appositive, when there are two commas.
If the problem is dealt with the verb, we need to check the
agreement between subject and verb, and then go to see if the
tense is used correctly.
If there is no problem with the Subject and Verb, the problems
might be found in the object or the adverb of the sentence, so take
a look and check. When dealing with object, it is probably dealing
with the adjective clause or appositive.

2.

3.

4.

Contd: Expl-1
Examples:
----S+ V--- with their surroundings, or they
hide in crevices for protection.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Lobsters
Lobsters blend
Lobsters blending
Because Lobsters
blend

S
S+V
S + V (- agreement)
Clause Marker + S + V

Contd: Expl-2

----S--- grow close to the ground in the


short Artic summer.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Above tundra plants


Tundra plants
Tundra plants are found
For Tundra plants

Prep. + S
S
S+V
Prep. + S

Contd: Expl-3

Liz Moses, ----N/NP---, grows beautiful


vegetables in her garden.
a.
b.
c.
d.

is my next-door neighbor
of my next-door neighbor
whom my next-door neighbor
my next-door neighbor

V + NP
Prep + NP
Cl. Marker +NP

NP

Contd: Expl-4

We do not ---V---- the bow drill was first


developed for woodworking or fire making.
a.
b.
c.
d.

whether it
know whether it
know whether
sure whether

Conj. + N
V + Conj + N
V + Conj
V (with missing
be)+ Conj.

Contd: Expll-5

Willa Cather is an author ---Adj Cl----for


her evocative and memorable vision of
frontier prairie life
a.
b.
c.
d.

whom readers
the praise of readers
whom praisings
whom readers praise

Cl. Marker + N
NP + Prep. obj
Cl. Marker + ?
Cl. Marker + S + V

Some Basic Points to Know


English Sentence : What We Need to Know
1.

A sentence contains at least one subject and one predicate


Peter eats at 5:00.
Peter is the Subject, the doer of the action
eat is the predicate, the action

2.

Besides, S and P, a sentence might contain objects or noun


complements.
a. Object (O):
1. Direct receiver of the action of a sentence (DO)
2. Indirect receiver of the action of a sentence (IO)
3. Object of a preposition (O of Prep)
I gave Jane a book for her birthday
IO
DO
O of Prep

Contd (2)
Pronoun:

You like roses

S
You gave him the roses
S
IO
Gerund (phrase): Growing roses is your favorite hobby (as S)
You relax by growing roses (as O of Prep)
Infinitive (phrase): You like to grow roses (O of Prep)
Noun clause
(DO)

: Everyone says that you grow beautiful roses.

Contd
4.

A sentence can contain more than one clause. This sentence


contains a main clause that contains a subject and a verb; and also
a subordinate clause that also contains a subject and a verb.
However, a subordinate clause cannot stand alone as a sentence.
There are three types of subordinate clauses: noun clauses,
adjective clauses, and adverb clauses.
a.

b.
c.

A noun clause functions as a subject, object, or complement


in a sentence.
I like what you said
An adjective clause functions as an adjective in a sentence.
I like the book that you gave me
An adverb clause functions as an adverb in a sentence.
Jack will call you as soon as he gets home.

Contd (3)
5.

Clause markers (CM) are used to connect clauses in


English
a.

b.

Coordinating conjunctions (CM that is used to connect


main clause with other main clauses). These includes
and, but, or, so, for, and yet.
Karina has a new coat, and Carolyn has new boots.
(a comma is usually placed just before the conjunction)
Other clause markers connecting main clauses include
however, nevertheless, in addition, as a result, on the
other hand, furthermore, and moreover.
Carolyn has new boots; in addition, she has new
gloves.
(a semicolon (;) usually precedes the CM; but
sometimes a period (.) can be used preceding the CM)

Contd (4)
c.

d.

e.

The clause markers for noun clauses are that, how,


how many (much), what, when, where, why, who,
whom, whose, and which.
I am not sure that we will be able to take a vacation
The clause markers for adjective clauses are who,
whom, whose, which, that, and sometimes, when,
where, and why
I like the cat that has yellow stripes
The clause markers for adverb clauses, some, are
after, as long as, because, as, if, unless, although,
while, when, and since.
We will take a walk after we finish studying

Contd (5)
6.

Appositive and Reduced Adjective Clause


Appositive = a noun structure which comes just after or just
before another noun structure. The appositive renames or has the
same meaning as the noun structure it accompanies. They are
often set off by commas. They come from adjective clauses.
Carol, who is my colleague, studies psycholinguistics. (Adj. Cl)
Carol, my colleague, studies psycholinguistics. (appositive)
Thus,
Adjective Clause that uses a reduced form can be written using
an appositive.
Reduced Adjective Clause
Carol, who is my colleague, studies psycholinguistics, becoming
Carol, my colleague, studies psycholinguistics

Contd (6)
7.

Reduced Adverb Clauses


Some of the adverb clauses can be
reduced.
Although he works very hard, he cannot
earn more than what he spends for food
becoming,
Although working very hard, he cannot
earn more than what he spends for food

READING

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Some Common Strategies Used against Problems of Reading


Comprehension
Recognize the types of the questions before starting to read the
passage.
Start working with questions of word meanings in context.
Continue to work with questions about finding referents.
The next can be directed to search the answers of questions
about detain and factual information.
Those types of questions will give us time to read at a glance the
passage. It will help us to build our schemata that is worthwhile
for helping us to understand in the second reading. The second
reading is done for answering the rest types of questions
including inferences, topic and main ideas, purpose and
organizational patterns, and authors attitude and tone of the
passage.

General tips for the READING SECTION :

Read the first and last sentence of the passage to establish the topic and
main idea. Skim the passage for the key concepts and vocabulary. Read the
questions following the passage to find out what information your are looking
for. DO NOT read the answer choices at this time; just read the questions.
Guess if you do not know the correct answer. Use any clues in the question
ad passage to make your best guest. If you finish the reading comprehension
section before the time is up, you can go back to questions that you were not
sure about.
Build Good Reading Skills: Skim and Scan Skimming means reading quicly
for general meaning. Scanning means knowing what information you need to
find before you read.
Vocabulary in Context When you answer this type of question about a word
in the passage, you need to scan to find the sentence that the word is in,
read it carefully, and reason logically. How to make use of context in reading
passages: Most writers try hard to help their readers to understand the
information in a reading passage. They do this by providing cues or aids in
their writing to clarify, define, and explain difficult concepts and key words and
expressions in the passages.


Guess if you do not know the correct answer. Use any clues in the

question ad passage to make your best guest. If you finish the reading
comprehension section before the time is up, you can go back to
questions that you were not sure about.
Build Good Reading Skills: Skim and Scan Skimming means reading
quickly for general meaning. Scanning means knowing what
information you need to find before you read.
Vocabulary in Context When you answer this type of question about a
word in the passage, you need to scan to find the sentence that the
word is in, read it carefully, and reason logically. How to make use of
context in reading passages: Most writers try hard to help their readers
to understand the information in a reading passage. They do this by
providing cues or aids in their writing to clarify, define, and explain
difficult concepts and key words and expressions in the passages.
To identify main ideas, look for key words that show a relationship to
the topic and are repeated throughout the passage .The main ideas is
often restated in the conclusion of the passage

Check to Make Inferences Questions on the TOEFL often ask you to


use your understanding of facts and details which are directly stated
in a reading passage to make an inference (a prediction or
conclusion) about the passage. Questions about implied information
may be about a part of the passage or about what came before or
will come after the passage. You may be asked to draw conclusions
about the passage itself, or to make predictions about another
related situation.
Answer choices for questions about facts and details may use the
exact words of the passage ,but more often they are restatements of
the information and require that you know synonyms and related
words. In questions that ask what is Not in the passage ,information
that is true is not the correct answer
Reference word also help to tie together the whole passage so that
it is easier to understand. Reference words are usually pronouns
,but may also be possessive adjectives or specified items.

Questions about details and facts are often worded in the


following ways: :

Questions about details and facts are often worded in the following ways:
About information that IS in the passage: According to the passage, who
why where when how, etc. ? According to the author, The author states in
the passage that The author indicates that The author refers to which of
the following as It is stated in the passage that
About information that IS NOT in the passage: All of the following are
mentioned in the passage as EXCEPT According to the passage all of
the following are true about EXCEPT Which of the following is NOT
mentioned in the passage as? Which of the following is NOT stated in the
passage?
To answer questions about facts and details follow these steps: Read the
question and identify the key words and controlling idea. REMEMBER that
the questions will be in order of the information in the passage. Scan the
passage for the key words and controlling ideas. REMEMBER that you
should look for synonyms and related words as well as exact words.
Carefully read this part of the passage to answer the question. Scan the
answer choices to match the information in the passage the correct answer
choice. Be careful to look for the information that is not true in a TOEFL
question worded with NOT and EXCEPT