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Penuangan logam cair

Penuangan

logam

terutama

untuk

cair

dari

tungku

tungku
dengan

kapasitas yang besar tidak langsung


dimasukkan ke dalam cetakan, tetapi
biasanya dituangkan terlebih dahulu ke
dalam

ladle

(tapping

process)

dan

kemudian dituangkan ke dalam cetakan


(pouring process). Hasil dari cetakan
tersebut disebut ingot.
kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani

Metode penuangan logam cair ke cetakan ing


1. Direct teeming
2. Tundishing
3. Uphill/trumpet
teeming
kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani

Penuangan logam
cair

kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani

1. Direct
teeming

Logam
cair
dituangkan
ke
dalam cetakan dan langsung
mengenai dasar cetakan. Cara
ini
merupakan
cara
yang
termudah
tetapi
terjadi
percikan logam cair yang dapat
menyebabkan
cacat
pada
permukaan
ingot.
Dihindari
dengan memasang pelat yang
terbuat dari
baja dibagian
dasar cetakan yang nantinya
akan ikut menjadi cair.
kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani

2. Tundishing
Kotak tundish diletakkan di antara ladle
dan cetakan, ini dapat mengurangi
kecepatan
jatuh
logam
cair
dan
menghindari percikan.
Tundish-nya bisa dibuat satu atau lebih
sehingga efisien.

kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani

3. Uphill/trumpet
teeming
Logam
cair
dituangkan

melalui
saluran
berbentuk trompet yang berada ditengahtengah dua cetakan ingot, dimana logam cair
masuk ke dalam cetakan ingot dari bawah.

Kerugian
cara
ini
adalah
terbawanya
lining/bata tahan api akibat terkikis oleh aliran
logam cair.

kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani

kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani

Bentuk-bentuk cetakan ingot

kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani

Jenis baja ingot:


1. Killed steel
2. Rimming steel
3. Balanced or semi-killed
steel

kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani

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Terjadinya perbedaan baja ingot disebabkan


karena pada saat proses pemurnian logam cair
mengandung karbon dan besi oksida yang tidak
larut.

Selain

selama

proses

peleburan/pencairan

logam, harus dilakukan pengontrolan komposisi


paduan, perlu pula diperhatikan timbulnya gasgas yang dapat terjebak pada saat pembekuan
dalam cetakan atau pengotor-pengotor yang
belum terikat sempurna menjadi slag/terak.

Untuk

menghilangkannya

ditambahkan

deoksidan/deoxidizer seperti silikon, aluminum


atau mangan.
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Penampang ingot akibat proses


pembekuan

Proses pemanasan ingot


pada 1200 C, t= 4-8 jam

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Skematik pengolahan ingot

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Sifat-sifat material (Material


properties)
Ada 4 sifat material:
1.Sifat fisik (physical properties)
2.Sifat mekanik (mechanical
properties)
3.Sifat kimia (chemical properties)
4.Sifat teknologi (technological
properties)
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Physical Properties

Physical property a characteristic of


a substance that can be observed or
measured
without
changing
the
composition of the substance.

Physical Properties

Shape, color, odor, texture

Melting point, boiling point, density,


strength, hardness, conductivity,
etc.
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Melting point the temperature at which a


solid becomes a liquid.
Boiling point - the temperature at which a
liquid becomes a gas (below the surface).
Density is calculated by dividing the
objects mass by its volume.

m
D
V
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Physical properties of Gold (Au)


Melting point

1337.33K
(1064.18C, 1947.52F)

Boiling point

3129 K
(2856 C, 5173 F)

Heat of fusion

12.55 kJmol1

Heat of
vaporization

324 kJmol1

Heat capacity
(25 C) 25.418 Jmol1K1
Physical properties of Platinum (Pt)
Melting point

2041.4K
(1768.3C, 3214.9F)

Boiling point

4098 K
(3825 C, 6917 F)

Heat of fusion

22.17 kJmol1

Heat of
vaporization

469 kJmol1

1
Heat capacity kusharjanto,
(25 metalurgi-unjani
C) 25.86 Jmol1
20K

Physical properties of Iron (Fe)


Melting point

1811K
(1538C, 2800F)

Boiling point

3134 K
(2861 C, 5182 F)

Heat of fusion

13.81 kJmol1

Heat of
vaporization

340 kJmol1

Heat capacity

(25 C) 25.10 Jmol1K1

Physical properties of Lead (Pb)


Melting point

600.61K
(327.46C, 621.43F)

Boiling point

2022 K
(1749 C, 3180 F)

Heat of fusion

4.77 kJmol1

Heat of
vaporization

179.5 kJmol1

Heat capacity

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(25 C) 26.650 Jmol K1

Physical properties of Mercury (Hg)


Melting point

234.32 K
(-38.83C, -37.89F)

Boiling point

629.88 K
(356.73C, 674.11F)

Heat of fusion

2.29 kJmol1

Heat of
vaporization

59.11 kJmol1

Heat capacity
(25C) 27.983 Jmol1K1
Physical properties of Tin (Sn)
Melting point

505.08 K
(231.93C, 449.47F)

Boiling point

2875 K
(2602C, 4716F)

Heat of fusion

(white) 7.03 kJmol1

Heat of
vaporization

(white) 296.1 kJmol1

(25C) (white)
Heat capacity kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani 1

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Density of several metals


Metals

Density(g/cm
3
)

Aluminum

2,712

Cobalt

8,746

Copper

8,930

Gold

19,320

Iron

7,850

Lead

11,340

Magnesiu
m

1,738

Mercury

13,593

Molybdenu
10,188
m
Nickel

8,800

Metals

Density(g/cm
3
)

Platinu
m

21,400

Plutoniu
m

19,816

Silver

10,490

Tin

7,280

Titanium 4,500
Tungste
n

19,600

Uranium 18,900
Vanadiu
m

kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani
Zinc

5,494
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7,135

Dimensional Change

The percent shrinkage or expansion


of a material
Usually expressed as a percentage
of an original length or volume
Examples?

Thermal change
Temperature changes
Each material has a different thermal
coefficient of expansion
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Thermal expansion: Question


Every dimension on the piece must be
multiplied by the coef. of expansion factor!

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Thermal Conductivity

Materials have
conducting heat

different

rates

of

Metals have higher value than plastics or


ceramics
Therefore, metals would cause patient to
feel more sensitivity

Enamel and dentin are poor thermal


conductors
In deep restorations, a cement base
will be used as an insulator
Gold causes the most sensitivity
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Chemical Properties

Chemical property the way a substance


reacts
with
others
to
form
new
substances with different properties.

Involve the reactivity of elements or


compounds

Flammable

Able to rust or oxidize

Reactivity the ability of a substance to


combine
chemically
with
another
substance.
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Electrolysis the process by which water


can be broken down into hydrogen and
oxygen.
The atoms of oxygen and hydrogen are
not
destroyed,
but
rearrange
themselves to form hydrogen and
oxygen gas.
Burning of gasoline into C, CO2, & H2O
A change in odor or color is a good clue
that a substance is changing chemically
i.e. food burning, paint fading, etc.

Chemical changes are changes in composition


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Galvanism and Corrosion

Galvanism
Generation of electrical currents in mouth
Results from presence of dissimilar metals in
mouth
Causes pain and tastes metallic

Corrosion
Dissolution of materials in mouth
Results from presence of dissimilar metals
Roughness and pitting
Tarnish
Surface reaction of metals to components
in saliva or foods

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Mechanical Properties
Mechanical properties apply to the way
materials behave when external loads
and forces are applied.

Sometimes the material stretches


(when loaded in tension), bulges (when
loaded in compression), or twists (when
loaded in torsion).
Anytime a load is applied to a material
it will undergo some change in shape.
This change is called deformation.

Mechanical properties indicate the


strengthand deformability (change in
shape) of a material.
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How a material deforms is useful in determining if it


is suitable for products and processing.
Example - if the material deforms easily it may not
have high enough strength but may process quite
easily.
It is important to find the proper characteristics of a
material to determine if it meets the requirements for
both the product and the processing.
Mechanical properties are usually determined by
carrying out tests based on standards that define the
procedure so comparisons can be made to the way a
certain material is expected to behave.
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Material
Loading

We will look at material loading in


several ways including:
tension,
compression,
shear
torsion.

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Stress
Stress or tensile strength refers to a
materials ability to resist being pulled apart .
Diagram shows a front view of a circular
member loaded in tension.
Stress is calculated by dividing the load (P)
by the cross sectional area (A)
Load ( P )
Stress ( S )
Area ( A)
P
S
A

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Problem
If a 1/2 inch diameter steel rod is used to suspend a
5000 pound load. What is the tensile stress in the
rod ?
Solution:

A = x R
= 3.14 x (0.25 in)
= 3.14 x 0.0625 in
= 0.19625 in
S = 5000 lbs. / 0.1963 in
= 25, 458.25 lbs / in
= 25, 500 psi
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Strain
Material will change in length as a load is applied.
This is called strain and is measured by comparing
the change in length to the original length.
This change can be expressed as either a percentage
or a ratio with implied units being inches/ inch or
mm/mm
l = Extended length (lf) Original Length (lo)

l
e
x100%
l0
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Modulus of Elasticity
Modulus of Elasticity determines a materials stiffness.
Ratio of stress to strain within the elastic region.
Modulus of Elasticity (E) = Stress (S) / Strain (e)
E=S/e
As stiffness increases, slope of the line will become
steeper.
Material that stretches easily will have a "flatter"
slope.
Modulus of Elasticity is an important property in
determining how much deformation will occur under
load.
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The diagram shown below illustrates the comparison of


some selected metals

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Up to this point we have considered only


tension.
Remember that normal stress is simply the
load divided by the cross sectional area when a
single axial load is applied.
We will now look at a few other types of
stresses and loading conditions including:
compression
bending
shear
torsion
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Compression
The compressive strength of a material determines how much
it deforms under a compressive load.
Some materials such as concrete are strong in compression
but weak in tension.
Generally a material will respond in one of the three
following ways:

(A) Brittlekusharjanto,
Fracturemetalurgi-unjani
(B) Barreling

(C)
39 Buckling

Compression
For materials that are brittle only slight
deformation occurs prior to fracture.
With more ductile materials, failure may occur by
either barreling (when the length is less than twice
the diameter) or buckling (when the length is
greater 2.5 times the diameter).
Compressive stress can be determined by the load
divided by the cross sectional area.

kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani

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Bending
When a member is subjected to bending, the outside
elements are placed in tension and the inside elements
are in compression.
At the center, stress is zero along the neutral axis.
The level of stress depends on the section geometry,
bending radius and loading, and the deflection depends
on the loading, section geometry and modulus of
elasticity.

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Torsion
Torsion is stress created by twisting forces.
These forces have a moment or torque.
Example, torque is applied to a solid shaft to transmit torque
from the power source to the driven machine like a pulley, gear,
or flywheel.
Torque may also be applied by using a crank or lever (such as
a ratchet wrench driving a socket).
When torque is applied to a material, the material resists
being twisted, thus stresses are created - shear stresses.
Imagine a round bar being a column of washers. If the torque
is applied to one washer, it would slide or turn with respect to
the adjacent washer and create a shear force.
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Torsion
Strength of a material in torsion is similar to tension in
concept, however rather than using force divided by area to
find stress, torsion is force multiplied by the distance from
the end of the lever/pulley to the center of the material being
acted upon.

kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani

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Shear Stress
Shear describes the condition when parallel forces
(planes) act in opposing directions
Example - scissors cutting paper, or a hole punch
producing a hole.
Shear strength is also important in mechanical
fasteners, power transmission couplings, and many
manufacturing processes.
Shear stress is the applied force divided by the area
in shear.
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Shear Stress
Practical applications of how shear stress occurs.

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Material Properties
Chemical

Metals

Plastics

Ceramics

Physical

Composition
Microstructure
Phases
Grain size
Corrosion resistance
Inclusions

Composition
Fillers/additives
Crystallinity
Molecular weight
Flammability
Spatial configuration
Chemical resistance

Composition
Porosity
Grain size
Crystal structure
Corrosion resistance
Phases

Mechanical

Manufacturing
considerations

Tensile/compressive
properties
Toughness
Ductility
Fatigue
Hardness
Creep resistance
Shear strength

Available shapes
Available sizes
Available surface
texture
Manufacturing
tolerances

Tensile/compressive
properties
Heat distortion
Pressure-velocity
limit
Toughness
Stress rupture
resistance
Creep resistance

Manufacturing
tolerances
Stability
Available sizes

Tensile/compressive
properties
Fracture toughness
Transverse rupture
Hardness

Available shapes
Available sizes
Available surface
texture
Manufacturing
tolerances

Tensile/compressive
properties
metalurgi-unjani
Fracture toughness

Available shapes
Available sizes
Manufacturing

Melting point
Glass transition
(polymers/glasses)
Magnetic
Electrical
Optical
Acoustic
Gravimetric
Color

Composites

Composition
matrix:filler
Matrix/filler bond

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