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Thin Walled Pressurized Tanks

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You are on page 1of 52

Tanks

(Credit for many illustrations is given to

McGraw Hill publishers

and an array of internet search results)

Parallel Reading

Chapter 9

Section 9.2

Gasses

Cancel each other out but there is

A net force to the side if we slice the

Tank.

It is the force

Produced by

The resistance

Of the metal of

The tank that

Resists this force

Metal as Small

Will be no significant differences

In stress from top to bottom

In the tank will be

The same no matter

What angle we take

The slice at.

Circle We Call it a Hoop Stress

r

P

The resisting

Area is the

Thickness of

The metal

2t

2*r*P

Force = 2*r*P

Therefore the Hoop Stress Is

F 2*r * P r * P

A

2*t

t

Designs

is Uniform in All Directions

Force must be P**r2

Resisting area must be

2**r*t

Thickness

t

P

Longitudinal stress must be

F P * * r

P*r

A 2 * * r * t 2 * t

An Example

A 500 gallon propane tank has a length

Of 12 feet, a diameter of 61 inches and

A wall thickness of 7/16ths of an inch

Steel rated for 60 ksi tension.

How much pressure can be put in it?

Where will it break?

Hoop Stress

Longitudinal Stress

Longitudinal.

The tank will blow first

With hoop stress.

Working it Out.

* t 60,000 * 0.4375

873 psi

pmax r 61

( 0.4375)

2

With a little algebra

It fails.

Is there some way to get rid of it?

(No Im not referring to your last quiz)

our connections rather than tear through the material

itself.

Occurring

A tank.

Of course I can also

Just weld rectangular

Plates together.

This design puts the hoop stress directly

On a welded joint.

to the hoop stress.

Lets consider the case of a compressed air tank 30 inches in diameter made of

3/8th inch steel plate and pressurized to 180 psi. What kinds of stresses will we

Be putting on those welds?

Hoop Stress

180 *14.625

7020 psi

0.375

This hoop stress will be directly applied to the weld

Of course the longitudinal stress is

the hoop so it is 3510 psi.

We all know which weld is likely to go first.

Case 2

What is the best way to find the stresses at an angle to the principle stress?

3510 psi

5265

7020 psi

State of Stress at 25 degrees?

3510

5265

50

weld

weld

7020

1755=r

So if I want to look

Looks like

25 degrees

Down from horizontal

7020 psi

3510 psi

Decision

7020 psi

tension

Case 1

1344 psi

shear

4140 psi

tension

Case 2

Case 1 when strength is

Really needed, that you

Will need a lot of what is

In case 1.

Assignment 12

Problem 9.2-6 part a, b, and c

What happens when the walls of the pressure

Vessel are thick enough that we can no longer

Call them thin walled?

Wall thickness exceeds about

1/20th of the diameter of the

vessel

of Stress and Deformation Changes through

Thickness

In a thin wall we are concerned about two stresses stress down the length

Longitudinal stress

and circumferential or hoop stress

Consider Radial Stress

Derivation is Tedious

(And therefore skipped)

Lames Equations

Mine shaft are open on both ends most developments of Lames

Equation leaves longitudinal stress out and then adds it by

Superposition later if needed)

Lames Equations

But life gets better. We know the maximum stress will

Be on the inside of the tank.

Thats Dandy

Inside is 100 MPa

-100 Mpa

What does the negative number mean?

Edge is getting squeezed

Outside Edge?

This python has

Sort or run out of

Squeeze.

Human Interest

What happened to the radial stress between the inside and

outside?

Tangential Stress

h max

100 *

(0.05 0.07 )

(0.07 0.05 )

308MPa

Circumferential Stress?

In for the outside edge

Well that Sucks

2

2* p

houtside

ri

i

(r o r i )

200 *

0.05

208MPa

(0.07 0.05 )

2

a Thin walled vessel?

Qualifies as thin wall.

100 * 0.05

1000 MPa

0.005

208 MPa outside

Example

Yipes!

But none of these equations are for shear stress!

Looks of this!

Am I cooked?

Shear in your first measurements,

Does not mean it is not there.

When material is in stress all sorts of

Combinations of shear and tensile

And compressive stresses become

Possible at different angles.

Stresses?

The 3 stresses calculated for a pressure vessel are all principle stresses!

Lets see the longitudinal stress must be 0 this pipe is not closed at the end

That leaves radial stress a compression

And Hoop stress a tension

Circle

Some Mohr

Pie!

Substituting

max

p

2

*(

(r i r o )

2

(r o r i )

1)

* 2 4000 * 2

pi 12.52 12.52 639 psi

Inside radius = 1.375 in

Outside radius = 1.5 in

Cylinder Application

Ammunition is called +P

It reaches higher pressures and sends

The bullet out at higher speed.

(But not all guns are made to handle

+P ammunition)

Is at the outside edge

Is still on the inside.

Watch Out

Lets Apply

Inspired by the concrete canoe competition

Students at SIU decide to have a

Concrete submarine competition.

Connie Concrete wants to decide how

Deep her submarine can go.

By 0.44 psi for every foot of depth.

To actually crush Connies concrete it

Will take 10,000 psi. The pipe is 5 ft in

Outside Diameter and 6 inches thick.

At 0.44 psi per foot of depth it will take

About 22,700 ft of depth.

Have longitudinal stress.

10,000 *

(30 27 )

2

30

1900 psi

Maximum on inside of cylinder

10,000 *

(30 27 )

2

2 * 30

950 psi

Is twice to longitudinal.

2,150 ft of depth.

Her team might have missed?

Proposed test

Subject for

submarine

Shear?

To actually crush the concrete takes 10,000 psi, but the specimen in a

Uniaxial compression test (like you ran) fails much sooner because the

Shear limit for Connies Concrete is 2,500 psi.

Pick our spot to check our most critical hoop stress is on the inside of the

Concrete cylinder.

Arrange our principle stresses in order from largest to smallest

1- Largest = hoop stress - compression

2- longitudinal stress - compression (1/2 of hoop stress)

3- radial stress 0 on the inside edge of the concrete

max

Radial Stress

Hoop

Stress

Longitudinal

Stress

1

max 2 ( biggest littlest )

Implications

The largest hoop stress will can take without triggering shear failure is twice

The shear limit

2,500 psi (shear limit) *2 = 5,000 psi maximum allowable hoop stress

The sub will fail in shear at 1,075 ft.

I think this

Might leak.

First test subject!

Book?

Here are the thick wall

Cylinder equations

We have been talking

About.

They may be useful

On class quizes

But they are unlikely

Subjects for the FE

Exam itself

Bottom of Page 1

And on Page 2

Equations they are more likely than

Thick wall vessels, but still unlikely

On the F.E.

(But very much fair game for class

Quizes).

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