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Thin Walled Pressurized

(Credit for many illustrations is given to
McGraw Hill publishers
and an array of internet search results)

Parallel Reading

Chapter 9
Section 9.2

Consider a Tank for Pressurized


The up and down force componants

Cancel each other out but there is
A net force to the side if we slice the

It is the force
Produced by
The resistance
Of the metal of
The tank that
Resists this force

If We Treat the Thickness of the

Metal as Small

If the metal thickness is small there

Will be no significant differences
In stress from top to bottom

That tensile stress

In the tank will be
The same no matter
What angle we take
The slice at.

Because that Stress is Uniform Around the

Circle We Call it a Hoop Stress

The Magnitude of the Hoop Stress


The resisting
Area is the
Thickness of
The metal

The Force must be


Force = 2*r*P
Therefore the Hoop Stress Is

F 2*r * P r * P


Hoop Stress Shows Up in Several


Of Course the Pressure in the Tank

is Uniform in All Directions

So there is also a longitudinal stress

Longitudinal Stress Magnitude

Force must be P**r2
Resisting area must be


Longitudinal stress must be

F P * * r

A 2 * * r * t 2 * t

An Example
A 500 gallon propane tank has a length
Of 12 feet, a diameter of 61 inches and
A wall thickness of 7/16ths of an inch
Steel rated for 60 ksi tension.
How much pressure can be put in it?
Where will it break?

Hoop Stress

Longitudinal Stress

Hoop Stress is twice

The tank will blow first
With hoop stress.

Working it Out.
* t 60,000 * 0.4375
873 psi
pmax r 61
( 0.4375)
With a little algebra

It will split down the length when

It fails.

Doggone Hoop Stress

Is there some way to get rid of it?

How about this?

Another Failure Problem

(No Im not referring to your last quiz)

Sometimes the easiest place to blow a tank is on one of

our connections rather than tear through the material

Shapes Like This are not Naturally


I can weld a spiral of metal to make

A tank.
Of course I can also
Just weld rectangular
Plates together.

I Wonder Which Design is Better?

This design puts the hoop stress directly
On a welded joint.

This design puts the weld on a diagonal

to the hoop stress.

Lets consider the case of a compressed air tank 30 inches in diameter made of
3/8th inch steel plate and pressurized to 180 psi. What kinds of stresses will we
Be putting on those welds?

Case 1 the weld faces right into the

Hoop Stress

180 *14.625

7020 psi
This hoop stress will be directly applied to the weld
Of course the longitudinal stress is
the hoop so it is 3510 psi.
We all know which weld is likely to go first.

Case 2

Let us suppose the angle on the spiral weld is 25 degrees.

What is the best way to find the stresses at an angle to the principle stress?

3510 psi


7020 psi

Mohrs Circle to the Rescue!

Now How Do We Check Out the

State of Stress at 25 degrees?







Mohrs Circle doubles angles

So if I want to look

center r * cos(50) 5265 1755 * cos(50) 4140 psi (tension)

r * sin(50) 1755 * sin(50) 1344 psi

Looks like
25 degrees
Down from horizontal

7020 psi
3510 psi


7020 psi

Case 1

1344 psi
4140 psi

Case 2

I suspect that if you pick

Case 1 when strength is
Really needed, that you
Will need a lot of what is
In case 1.

Assignment 12

Problem 9.2-2 part a and b

Problem 9.2-6 part a, b, and c

Into the Thick of Things

What happens when the walls of the pressure
Vessel are thick enough that we can no longer
Call them thin walled?

Things get thick when the

Wall thickness exceeds about
1/20th of the diameter of the

Thin Walls Allow Us to Drop Consideration

of Stress and Deformation Changes through

In a thin wall we are concerned about two stresses stress down the length
Longitudinal stress
and circumferential or hoop stress

Thickwall Means We Must Also

Consider Radial Stress

Derivation is Tedious
(And therefore skipped)

Lames Equations

(ok so its a bit Lame)

(Because many thick walled cylinders think pipe, gun barrel,

Mine shaft are open on both ends most developments of Lames
Equation leaves longitudinal stress out and then adds it by
Superposition later if needed)

Lets Try One

We Get Some Simplifications in

Lames Equations

For any radius r

But life gets better. We know the maximum stress will
Be on the inside of the tank.

Thats Dandy

Apply to Our Problem

Lets do the hard one if the pressure

Inside is 100 MPa
-100 Mpa
What does the negative number mean?

The material at the inside

Edge is getting squeezed

Whats Happening at the

Outside Edge?
This python has
Sort or run out of

Human Interest
What happened to the radial stress between the inside and

It decays by a second order curve

Now for Circumferential or

Tangential Stress

h max

100 *

(0.05 0.07 )
(0.07 0.05 )


What does the positive sign mean?

The tank is being pulled apart

What About Outer Edge

Circumferential Stress?

No preset simplified formula we have to plug

In for the outside edge
Well that Sucks

2* p


(r o r i )

200 *

(0.07 0.05 )

How does this result compare to

a Thin walled vessel?

Picking the largest value of t that still

Qualifies as thin wall.

100 * 0.05

1000 MPa

308 MPa inside

208 MPa outside



I know my maximum stress is at the inside wall of the pipe

But none of these equations are for shear stress!

I dont like the

Looks of this!
Am I cooked?

Then We Remember Mohrs Circle

Just because you dont see

Shear in your first measurements,
Does not mean it is not there.
When material is in stress all sorts of
Combinations of shear and tensile
And compressive stresses become
Possible at different angles.

What Do We Know About


The 3 stresses calculated for a pressure vessel are all principle stresses!
Lets see the longitudinal stress must be 0 this pipe is not closed at the end
That leaves radial stress a compression
And Hoop stress a tension

Quick Consideration of 3D Mohrs


Our hoop stress (tension)

Our radial stress (compression)

Some Mohr





(r i r o )

(r o r i )


A Bit of Plug and Chug

* 2 4000 * 2
pi 12.52 12.52 639 psi
Inside radius = 1.375 in
Outside radius = 1.5 in

Gun Barrels are a Thick Wall

Cylinder Application

A new kind of high power

Ammunition is called +P
It reaches higher pressures and sends
The bullet out at higher speed.
(But not all guns are made to handle
+P ammunition)

What is the mode of failure in these cases?

What Happened Here?

What if the Pressure is Outside?

The radial stress maximum

Is at the outside edge

The hoop stress maximum

Is still on the inside.

Watch Out

Note the stress is compressive?

The foot looks fine to me

Lets Apply
Inspired by the concrete canoe competition
Students at SIU decide to have a
Concrete submarine competition.
Connie Concrete wants to decide how
Deep her submarine can go.

Pressure outside the vessel increases

By 0.44 psi for every foot of depth.
To actually crush Connies concrete it
Will take 10,000 psi. The pipe is 5 ft in
Outside Diameter and 6 inches thick.

Connie Crunches Limits

To do a radial crush will take 10,000 psi

At 0.44 psi per foot of depth it will take
About 22,700 ft of depth.

Because of end caps the submarine will also

Have longitudinal stress.

10,000 *

(30 27 )


About 4,300 ft of depth

1900 psi

Now to Check Hoop Stress

Maximum on inside of cylinder

10,000 *

(30 27 )

2 * 30

950 psi

This looks familiar the hoop stress

Is twice to longitudinal.

Well we can still make it to

2,150 ft of depth.

Want a Ride in Connies Sub?

Can you think of anything that Connie and

Her team might have missed?
Proposed test
Subject for

Does this Make You Worry?

I wonder if my concrete could fail in

To actually crush the concrete takes 10,000 psi, but the specimen in a
Uniaxial compression test (like you ran) fails much sooner because the
Shear limit for Connies Concrete is 2,500 psi.

So How do You Get Max Shear?

Pick our spot to check our most critical hoop stress is on the inside of the
Concrete cylinder.
Arrange our principle stresses in order from largest to smallest
1- Largest = hoop stress - compression
2- longitudinal stress - compression (1/2 of hoop stress)
3- radial stress 0 on the inside edge of the concrete

Radial Stress


max 2 ( biggest littlest )

The largest hoop stress will can take without triggering shear failure is twice
The shear limit
2,500 psi (shear limit) *2 = 5,000 psi maximum allowable hoop stress

Thats only half what we thought we could do.

The sub will fail in shear at 1,075 ft.
I think this
Might leak.

Oh Nuts We just lost our

First test subject!

So Where Are We With the FE

Here are the thick wall
Cylinder equations
We have been talking
They may be useful
On class quizes
But they are unlikely
Subjects for the FE
Exam itself

Bottom of Page 1

And on Page 2

These are the thin wall vessel

Equations they are more likely than
Thick wall vessels, but still unlikely
On the F.E.
(But very much fair game for class