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Load Line markings

The first official loading regulations are thought to date


back to maritime legislation originating with the Kingdom
of Crete in 2500 BC when vessels were required to pass
loading and maintenance inspections. Roman sea
regulations also contained similar regulations.
In the Middle Ages the Venetian Republic, the city of
Genoa and the Hanseatic League required ships to show
a load line. In the case of Venice this was a cross marked
on the side of the ship and of Genoa three horizontal
lines
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Load Line markings


Coffin ships
Coffin ship is the name given to any ship that has been
over-insured and is therefore worth more to its owners
sunk than afloat. These were hazardous places to work in
the days before effective maritime safety regulation.
They were generally eliminated in the 1870s with the
success of reforms championed by British MP Samuel
Plimsoll.

Captain Vijay M. Damley

Load Line markings


Lord Plimsoll
Many of these in the days of wooden sailing ships were old
ships riddled with wood rot and woodworm and shipworm,
repainted and renamed and falsely stated to be new ships.
There were over 2000 cases of sailors who had signed on as
crew for a ship, seeing the ship's condition, refusing to go on
board it, and being tried in court for this refusal. Samuel
Plimsoll stated in the UK Parliament that "The Secretary of
Lloyd's tells a friend of mine that he does not know a single
ship which has been broken up voluntarily by the owners in
the course of 30 years on account of its being worn out."
Captain Vijay M. Damley

Load Line markings


Lord Plimsoll
Samuel Plimsoll (10 February 1824 3 June 1898) was an English politician
and social reformer, now best remembered for having devised the Plimsoll
line (a line on a ship's hull indicating the maximum safe draft, and therefore
the minimum freeboard for the vessel in various operating conditions).
In 1867, Plimsoll was elected as the Liberal Member of Parliament for Derby,
and endeavoured in vain to pass a bill dealing with the subject of a safe
load line on ships. The main problem was the number of ship-owning MP's in
Parliament.
In 1872, he published a work entitled Our Seamen, which became well
known throughout the country. Accordingly, on Plimsoll's motion in 1873, a
Royal Commission was appointed, and in 1875 a government bill was
introduced, which Plimsoll, though regarding it as inadequate, resolved to
accept.
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Load Line markings


Lord Plimsoll
On 22 July, the Prime Minister, Benjamin Disraeli, announced that the
bill would be dropped. Plimsoll lost his self-control, applied the term
"villains" to members of the House, and shook his fist in the
Speaker's face.
Disraeli moved that he be reprimanded, but on the suggestion of Lord
Hartington agreed to adjourn the matter for a week to allow Plimsoll
time for thought.
Eventually Plimsoll made an apology. Many people, however, shared
his view that the bill had been stifled by the pressure of the
shipowners, and popular feeling forced the government to pass a bill
which in the following year was amended into the Merchant
Shipping Act
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Load Line markings


Lord Plimsoll
This gave stringent powers of inspection to the Board of
Trade, and the mark that indicates the safe limit to which a
ship may be loaded became generally known as Plimsoll's
mark or line.
Plimsoll was re-elected for Derby at the general election of 1880 by
a great majority, but gave up his seat to William Vernon Harcourt,
believing that the latter, as Home Secretary, could advance sailors'
interests more effectively than any private member.
He was for some years the honorary president of the National Sailors' and
Firemen's Union, and drew attention to the horrors of the cattle-ships, where
animals were transported under appalling and over-crowded conditions.

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Load Line markings


The waterline is the line where the hull of a ship meets
the surface of the water, in concept or reality.
Specifically, it is also the name of a special marking, also
known as an international load line, Plimsoll line and
water line (positioned amidships), that indicates the draft
of the ship and the legal limit to which a ship may be
loaded for specific water types in order to safely maintain
buoyancy, particularly with regard to the hazard of waves
that may arise.

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Load Line markings


The purpose of a load line is to ensure that a ship has sufficient
freeboard (the height from the water line to the main deck) and
thus sufficient reserve buoyancy. The freeboard of commercial
vessels is measured between the lowest point of the uppermost
continuous deck at side and the waterline and this must not be less
than the freeboard marked on the load line certificate issued to
that ship. All commercial ships, other than in exceptional
circumstances, have a load line symbol painted amidships on each
side of the ship. This symbol is also permanently marked, so that if
the paint wears off it remains visible. The load line makes it easy
for anyone to determine if a ship has been overloaded. The exact
location of the load line is calculated and verified by a classification
society and that society issues the relevant certificates.
Captain Vijay M. Damley

Load Line markings


Load Line
As we have already defined above, Load Line is a special
marking positioned amidships. All vessels of 24 meters
and more are required to have this Load line marking at
the centre position of the length of summer load water
line.
There are two types of Load line markings: Standard Load Line marking This is applicable to all
types of vessels.
Timber Load Line Markings This is applicable to vessels
carrying timber cargo.
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Load Line markings


These marks shall be punched on the surface of the hull
making it visible even if the ship side paint fades out. The
marks shall again be painted with white or yellow colour on a
dark background / black on a light background. The
complete Load line markings consist of 3 vital parts.
Deck Line It is a horizontal line measuring 300mm by
25mm. It passes through the upper surface of the freeboard.
Load Line Disc It is 300mm diameter and 25mm thick
round shaped disc. It is intersected by a horizontal line. The
upper edge of the horizontal line marks the Summer salt
water line also known as Plimsoll Line.
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Load Line markings


Load Lines Load lines are horizontal lines extending
forward and aft from a vertical line placed at a distance
of 540mm from the centre of the disc. They measure
230mm by 25mm. The upper surfaces of the load lines
indicate the maximum depths to which the ships maybe
submerged in different seasons and circumstances.

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Load Line markings

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Load Line markings


S Summer :- It is the basic freeboard line at the same level as the
Plimsoll Line. Other load lines are marked based on this Summer
freeboard line.
T Tropical :- It is 1/48thof summer draft marked above the Summer load
line.
W Winter :- It is 1/48thof summer draft marked below the Summer load
line.
WNA Winter North Atlantic :- It is marked 50mm below the Winter load
line. It applies to voyages in North Atlantic ( above 36 degrees of
latitude) during winter months. Ships length not exceeding 100 m.
F Fresh Water :- It is the summer fresh water load line. The distance
between S and F is the Fresh Water Allowance (FWA)mm = Displ / (4 x
TPC).
TF Tropical Fresh Water :- It is the fresh water load line in Tropical. It is
marked above the T at an amount equal to FWA.
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Load Line markings

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Load Line markings

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Load Line markings

Thank You

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