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Diseases/ Disorders of the

Circulatory System

Cardiovascular Diseases
1. Heart Failure
- heart fails to maintain an adequate output
- results in diminished blood flow
- 2 kinds of heart failure: left heart failure and
right heart failure
- signs and symptoms:
*Shortness of breath or trouble breathing.
*Fatigue (tiredness)
*Swelling in the ankles, feet, legs, abdomen,
and veins in the neck.

Cardiovascular Diseases
2. Congenital Heart Disorders
- failure of the heart of the fetus to develop normally
- Blue Baby Syndrome
- signs and symptoms:
*blue coloration of the skin (cyanosis)
* excessive sweating.
* extreme tiredness and fatigue.
* poor feeding.
* rapid heartbeat.
* rapid breathing.
* shortness of breath.
* chest pain.

Cardiovascular Diseases
3. Coronary Heart Disease
-obstruction of adequate blood flow through
the coronary arteries
- signs and symptoms:
* Shortness of breath.
* Palpitations (irregular heart beats, skipped
beats, or a "flip-flop" feeling in your chest).
* Weakness or dizziness.
* Nausea
* Chest discomfort

Cardiovascular Diseases
4. Hypertension
-the blood pressure of the person is
higher than normal
- signs and symptoms:
* headache
* redness of the face
* tightening sensation at the base
of the nape

Cardiovascular Diseases
5. Stroke
- cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
- damage of the brain because of a
blood clot

Cardiovascular Diseases
Thrombus blood clot
Embolus free flowing clot
Aneurysm bulging or burst blood
vessel

Cardiovascular Diseases
6. Aortic Aneurysmis the abnormal
dilatation of the
aorta leading to
the weakening of
the walls.

Cardiovascular Diseases
7. Atherosclerosis- a
chronic vascular
disease that may
remain asymptomatic
for many years leading
to the hardening of the
arteries due to the
accumulation of fat,
cholesterol, and other
substances in the
arterial walls

Cardiovascular Diseases
8. Polyarteritis Nodosa- is a serious
inflammatory disease of unknown etiology
affecting small to medium sized arteries.
-characterized by muscle and joint aches,
fever, night sweats, fatigue, and weight loss
9. Peripheral Vascular Disease- also called
peripheral artery disease. It is a vascular
disorder marked by obstruction of large
arteries of the legs and hands.

Cardiovascular Diseases
10. Anginacommonly referred
to as chest pain
and referred to as
the sharp and
shooting pain that
is severe in
intensity and
develop when the
blood supply to the
heart muscles is
altered as a result

Cardiovascular Diseases
11. Cardiomyopathyis the disease of
the heart muscles
that may lead to
enlarged, thick or
rigid heart
muscles.

Cardiovascular Diseases
12. Arrhythmia- an abnormal rate or rhythm of the
heartbeat.

Tachycardia racing heart in the absence of


exercise or anxiety
Bradycardia abnormally slow heartbeat
Fibrillation heart beat is sporadic, quivering
pattern
13. Rheumatic Heart Disease- is an inflammatory
condition that mainly involves cardiac valves as
a result of chronic history of untreated or poorly
managed rheumatic fever.

Cardiovascular Diseases
14.
Arteriosclerosisartery walls
harden; caused by
a diet high in fat
and cholesterol.
Causes:

Smoking
Diabetes
High Blood Pressure
High Cholesterol
Overweight

New Weapons Against Heart


Disease
Techniques for diagnosing heart
disease

Angiography
Electrocardiogram (ECG)
Positron emission tomography (PET)
Single positron emission color
tomography (SPECT)
Radionuclide imaging
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Ultrafast CT
Digital cardiac angiography (DSA)

Diseases Affecting the Blood and


Related Organs
1. Anemia
- deficiency in red blood cells
- may be caused by:
* insufficient production of red blood cells
* loss of blood
* excessive destruction of red blood cells
a. Deficiency Anemia- develops if the diet lacks sufficient
iron, vitamin B-12, or folic acid.
b. Aplastic Anemia- occurs if the bone marrow loses its
ability to produce red blood cells.
c. Anemia of renal disease- occurs as a result of the kidneys
inability to produce a hormone called erythropoietin.

Diseases Affecting the Blood and


Related Organs

Diseases Affecting the Blood and


Related Organs
2. Leukemia
- or cancer of the blood
is a kind of cancer in
which abnormal white
blood cells multiply in
an uncontrolled manner.
- may be caused by:
* genetic
abnormalities
* exposure to
radiation an toxic
chemical wastes

Diseases Affecting the Blood and


Related Organs
3. Hemophilia
-due to the
absence of clotting
factors