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Introduction to Jet Propulsion

P M V Subbarao
Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department

Strong and Reliable Muscles for the Aircraft

Global Momentum Analysis

Momentum Equation

Vac

Vjet

pinlet

pexit

Newtons Second Law of Motion

surface

Reynolds Transport Theorem:


dM cm dM cv

M exit M inlet
dt
dt

dM cm

dt

Fsurface

dM cv
M exit M inlet
dt

For a frictionless flight, pressure forces are only the


surface forces

pinlet Ainlet pexit Aexit Fductwall

dM cv
M exit M inlet
dt

Steady state steady flow

inlet

inlet

Ainlet pexit Aexit Fductwall M exit M inlet

Ainlet pexit Aexit Fductwall m jetV jet m airVair

Fductwall pinlet Ainlet pexit Aexit m jetV jet m airVair

Fductwall pinlet Ainlet pexit Aexit m jetV jet m airVair

Pressure Thrust

Momentum Thrust

At design cruising conditions : Pressure thrust is zero.

pinlet pexit patm


Fthrust m jetV jet m airVair

Generation of Thrust : The Capacity


Thrust

FT m jetV jet m airVac


FT m air m fuel V jet m airVac
FT m air 1 f V jet Vac
f : Fuel-air ratio

Dynamic Equilibrium : Cruising Vehicle

For a cruising vehicle:

FT m air 1 f V jet Vac drag on Vehicle


2
ac

V
m air 1 f V jet Vac Cdrag air Aac
2

Drag on Aircraft

Generation of Lift

Drag Coefficient of an Air Craft

Generation of Lift

Drag Coefficient of an Air Craft

Lift - to - Drag Ratio


Flight article

Scenario

L/D ratio

Virgin Atlantic
GlobalFlyer

Cruise

37[

Lockheed U-2

Cruise

~28

Rutan Voyager

Cruise[4]

27

Albatross
Boeing 747

20
Cruise

17

Common tern

12

Herring gull

10

Concorde

M2 Cruise

7.14

Cessna 150

Cruise

Concorde

Approach

4.35

House sparrow

Minimum Drag Coefficients


Aircraft
RQ-2 Pioneer
North American Navion

Type
Single piston-engine UAV
Single piston-engine general aviation

Aspect Ratio
9.39
6.20

CDmin
0.0600
0.0510

Cessna 172/182

Single piston-engine general aviation

7.40

0.0270

Cessna 310

Twin piston-engine general aviation

7.78

0.0270

Marchetti S-211

Single jet-engine military trainer

5.09

0.0205

Cessna T-37

Twin jet-engine military trainer

6.28

0.0200

Beech 99

Twin turboprop commuter

7.56

0.0270

Cessna 620

Four piston-engine transport

8.93

0.0322

Learjet 24

Twin jet-engine business jet

5.03

0.0216

Lockheed Jetstar

Four jet-engine business jet

5.33

0.0126

F-104 Starfighter
F-4 Phantom II

Single jet-engine fighter


Twin jet-engine fighter

2.45
2.83

Lightning
Convair 880

Twin jet-engine fighter


Four jet-engine airliner

2.52
7.20

0.0480
0.0205 (subsonic)
0.0439 (supersonic)
0.0200
0.0240

Douglas DC-8

Four jet-engine airliner

7.79

0.0188

Boeing 747

Four jet-engine airliner

6.98

0.0305

X-15

Hypersonic research plane

2.50

0.0950

Propulsive Power or Thrust Power:

Pp FT Vac Vac m air 1 f V jet Vac


Measure of compactness of a jet engine:

Specific Thrust S

FT
S
1 f V jet Vac
m air

Measure of fuel economy:


Thrust Specific Fuel Consumption TSFC
TSFC

m fuel
FT

m fuel

m air 1 f V jet Vac

1 f V jet Vac

Aviation Appreciation
Propulsion Efficiency

propulsion

Thrust Power

Available Kinetic Power of the Jet

propulsion

propulsion

FT Vac

m air
1 f V jet2 Vac2
2

m air 1 f V jet Vac Vac

m air
(1 f )V jet2 Vac2
2

Jet Characteristics

FT m jetV jet m airVac


Quantities defining a jet are:
cross-sectional area;
composition;
velocity.

m jet jet A jetV jet

FT jet A jetV jet m airVac


2

Of these, only the velocity is a truly characteristic feature and is of


considerable quantitative significance.

Jet Characteristics of Practical Propulsion Systems


System

Jet Velocity (m/s)

Turbofan

200 - 600

Turbojet (sea-level, static)

350 - 600

Turbojet (Mach 2 at 36000 ft)

900 - 1200

Ramjet (Mach 2 at 36000 ft)

900 - 1200

Ramjet (Mach 4 at 36000 ft)

1800 - 2400

Solid Rocket

1500 2600

Liquid Rocket

2000 3500

Nozzle : Steady State Steady Flow


in

jet

First Law :

Qcv m h
gz
2

V
m h
gz
2

in

W cv
jet

No heat transfer and no work transfer & No Change in potential


energy.
2
2

V
h
2

in

V
h
2

jet

Combined analysis of conservation of mass and first law

m
hin

in Ain

h jet

jet A jet

A SSSF of gas through variable area duct can interchange the


enthalpy and kinetic energy as per above equation.
Consider gas as an ideal and calorically perfect.

V jet
V

Tin
c p T jet
c pT0
2c p
2c p

cp

2
in

Isentropic expansion of an ideal and calorically perfect gas.

Tin pin

T jet p jet