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Lean Construction & Continuous Improvement

John Clement / Ian Widdrington


23rd June 2015

Agenda

Golf Ball Challenge


Background to Lean
5 Principles of Lean
Value Adding Work & Non-value Adding
Work
Lean Toolbox
SMED Printing Press
Break
5S Numbers
Continuous Improvement
Tools + Cultural
Barriers to Continuous Improvement

Golf Ball Challenge


Objective:
The golf ball is to touch everyones hands and end
up with the person who started the sequence, in
the shortest possible time.
Rules:
First person is the last person to touch the ball
Each person to touch the ball in turn,
separately
3 timed goes to see how
much you can reduce the
process time.

Definition

What is Lean Construction?


Maximising VALUE to you and your clients
by
Minimising WASTE (NON-VALUE ADDING work)
Doing MORE with LESS
(less time, less equipment, less effort)

Definition

What is Continuous Improvement?


Engaging with your workforce to constantly
achieve incremental steps of Quality & Efficiency
Improvement
Some of which steps may lead to real Innovation

History of Lean & CI

& Daniel T Jones

Original

Gilbreth

Daniel T Jones contributor

5 Key Drivers of Change


Committed leadership
Focus on the customer
Integrated processes and teams
Quality driven agenda
Commitment to people.
Targets
10% reduction in construction
cost
10% reduction in construction
time
Defects in projects reduced by
20% per year

Sir John Egan


Nov 1998

5 Principles of Lean

Prof Daniel Jones

1. Specify Value from the


customers perspective
2. Map the Value Stream clearly
distinguishing Value Adding
work from Non Value Adding
work
3. Flow: Uninterrupted, balanced
flow
between Value Creating Steps
4. Pull System dependant on
Customer Demand
5. Perfection: Continuous
Improvement with Site Operative
Involvement

Top Tip

Learn to see all your companys work as a Flow Process /


a Value Stream
Order Generation

Work Carried Out


Payment

Invoice Raised

PV Solar Farm Installation


Process

Construction Phase Plan

Including Back Office


Processes

Value Adding / Non value


Adding

Identifying Waste Non Value


Adding Work

7 Wastes (Muda)

7 Wastes = Non Value Adding Work


Transport
Inventory
Motion

Waiting
Over-production
Over-process
Defects

MOVEITOVER
THEREUNTIL
WENEEDIT

3 Biggest
Wastes

8 Wastes (Lean Sigma)


Under-utilised Talent

Under-utilised Machinery

Waste Materials

Wasted Energy

Value Adding Work

Value Adding / Non value


Adding

Operation that changes the product or service,


moving it closer to a usable, saleable item

1. It must transform the product or


service
2. The customer must be willing to
pay for it
3. It must be done correctly the
first time

Value Adding Work

Which are the Value Adding operations?


Roughly how long do they take?
1 week cycle = 168 hours
~4 hours = 2.4% Value Add

Value Stream Mapping

Value Stream Mapping

Lean Toolbox

5S
Visual Management
JIT / Pull System
Kanban
Right First Time
Poka Yoke / Mistake
Proofing
7, 8, 9, Wastes

Value Stream
Mapping
SMED
Kaizen / CI Activity
PDCA Cycle
TPM
OEE
Standardised Work
Gemba

Pit Stop

Single Minute Exchange


of Dies
SMED
7 Steps to reducing changeover
time using the SMED system:
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

OBSERVE the current methodology


Separate the INTERNAL and EXTERNAL activities
Internal activities are those that can only be performed when the process is stopped, while External
activities can be done while the last batch is being produced, or once the next batch has started.
Convert (where possible) Internal activities into External ones.
Streamline the remaining Internal activities, by simplifying them - Focus on fixings
Its only the last turn of a bolt that tightens it, the rest is just movement.
Streamline the External activities, so that they are of a similar scale to the Internal ones
Practicality!
Document the new procedure, and actions that are yet to be completed.
Do it all again:
For each iteration of the above process, a 45% improvement in set-up times should be expected,
so it may take several iterations to cross the ten minute line.

Quick Hitch Bucket

Modular Offsite
Construction

Printing Press

Change over the press and print:


or

Unplug heating element


Could this be
Fetch tools from tool store
Put on PPE
improved?
1. Observe
Unscrew old die & remove
Fetch new die from store
2. INTERNAL or
Fit new die and secure in place
EXTERNAL
Plug in heating element
3. Convert to
Adjust guides to print shape as shown
EXTERNAL
4. Streamline INTERAL Tighten guide screws
Fetch printing materials from store
5. Streamline
Test print
EXTERNAL
QA check using ruler
6. Document
Print run start
7. Repeat the processHow much of sequence is Value Addin

Brick Fabrication
Value Stream Mapping

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Seiri
Seiton
Seiso
Seiketsu
Shitsuke

5S

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Sort out
Set in order
Shine
Systemise
Sustain

How?
1.
2.

Sort out
Set in
order
3. Shine
4. Systemise
5. Sustain

Continuous Improvement

What is Continuous Improvement?


Engaging with your workforce to constantly
achieve incremental steps of Quality & Efficiency
Improvement
Some of which steps may lead to real Innovation

PDCA Cycle (Deming


Cycle)
Establish as the new norm
How can we improve next
time?

Did it work
effectively?

Analyse the current


situation, gathering data,
and developing ways to
make improvements

Test alternative
methods -establish a
pilot process, or try it
out with small number
of customers

Continuous Improvement

Continuous Improvement

Tools

Toyota Production System

Culture

Toyota Production System

Peoples Needs

Stimulation
Variety
Creativity
Personal Development
Training
Respect
Responsibility
Fun

Team Work
Belonging
Caring / Cared for
Family
Communication

Swe
et
Spot

Reasonable Income
Health & Well Being
Safety
Security
Working Environmen

Aligned with Personal Values


Valued
Purpose
Business Context
Business Goals

People Types

Leaders & Managers

Leaders

Managers

Liberators of skilled people


Encourage and expect results
Achievers themselves
Developers of people & teams
Examples by their own behaviour
Relationship builders based on mutual
trust
Selfless dedication & determination

Gathering data
Reviewing / Analysing
Planning
Controlling
Assessing risk
Communicating
Setting targets
Managing resources

Expected Employee
Behaviour
Focus on YOUR customer
Own the challenge
Believe in your qualities
Work Together
Think the Unthinkable

Plan to exceed your Goals


(Targets)
Solutions not Problems
Challenge if you don't believe
Tell it like It Is

Roles, Goals & Coaching

Mentoring / Coaching

7 Habits of Highly Effective


People
Stephen Covey
Be Proactive
Begin with the end in mind
Put first things first
Think win-win
Seek first to understand, then to be
understood
6. Synergise
7. Sharpen the saw
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1. How to capture the improvement


ideas?
2. How to implement the improvement
ideas?
3. How to keep the momentum going?

Ideas captured at shift changeover


meetings, discussed and implemented by
scheduling in the changes.

Scheduled Improvement / Kaizen


Activities

Blitz Events

Prioritising Improvements

Maintaining Momentum

1. Appoint a
Champion
2. Train the Champion
3. Support the
Champion
successful business initiatives origin

or have absolute buy in from the top

Apply to the CFW Programme for our FOC support to


kick start your activity

Thank you

Find out how Continuous Improvement tools can help your


construction company
Learn how Lean Construction can help you improve value and
focus on your project delivery process while reducing waste and the
resources used
Receive expert advice on using Lean Tools and Techniques in the
workplace

Teamwork

5 Critical Components of Self Directed


Work Teams
1.

Shared Goals

2.

Shared Responsibility for Achievement

3.

All needed Skills

4.

Authority to Plan, Implement and Control the


Work Process

5.

Clearly defined responsibility for KPI


achievement:

Quality, Cost, Delivery, Efficiency, Safety,


Morale

Teamwork
High Performing Teams
Purpose
Empowerment
Relationships and Communication
Flexibility
Optimisation
Recognition
Morale

2 More Wastes

Waste of Energy & Resources


Leaving power on
Dripping Tap
Waste of Talent
Wrong Person / Wrong Job
Not recognising and utilising peoples talents
Missing or ignoring hidden skills results in a demoralised worker.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Think Lean Think Value Adding


Never stop Streamlining your work
Never stop Innovating
Always begin with the end in mind
Think Win-Win
Seek first to understand, then to be understood
Sharpen the saw

Value Stream Mapping

It was the Japanese who set out to change


the rules of the game. By purchasing a few
used American presses and endlessly
experimenting from the late 1940s onward,
Ohno eventually perfected his technique for
quick die changes. By the late 1950s, he had
reduced the time required to change dies from
a day to an astonishing
three
minutes.
Prof James P.
Womak
/ Prof Daniel T. Jone
The Machine that Changed the World

Why Bother?
Daniel T Jones contributor
Sir John Egan
Nov 1998

The
The UK
UK construction
construction industry
industry at
at its
its best
best is
is excellent.
excellent. Its
Its
capability
capability to
to deliver
deliver the
the most
most difficult
difficult and
and innovative
innovative projects
projects matches
matches
that
that of
of any
any other
other construction
construction industry
industry in
in the
the world.
world.
Nonetheless,
Nonetheless, there
there is
is deep
deep concern
concern that
that the
the industry
industry as
as a
a whole
whole is
is
under-achieving.
under-achieving. It
It has
has low
low profitability
profitability and
and invests
invests too
too little
little in
in
capital,
capital, research
research and
and development
development and
and training.
training. Too
Too many
many of
of the
the
industry's
industry's clients
clients are
are dissatisfied
dissatisfied with
with its
its overall
overall performance
performance
We
We have
have identified
identified five
five key
key drivers
drivers of
of change
change which
which need
need to
to set
set
the
the agenda
agenda for
for the
the construction
construction industry
industry at
at large:
large: committed
committed
leadership,
leadership, a
a focus
focus on
on the
the customer,
customer, integrated
integrated processes
processes and
and
teams,
teams, a
a quality
quality driven
driven agenda
agenda and
and commitment
commitment to
to people.
people.
Our
Our targets
targets are
are based
based on
on our
our own
own experience
experience and
and evidence
evidence that
that we
we
have
have obtained
obtained from
from projects
projects in
in the
the UK
UK and
and overseas.
overseas. Our
Our targets
targets

Observing the Current Sta

Value Stream Map


Value Adding Work or Non-value Adding Work

Working with your Team

Visual Management

Illustration from The Visual Factory - Grief

Visual Management
Visual Management Definition:
Implementation of systems that
bring knowledge to the working
environment, enabling employees
to differentiate between the normal
and abnormal IMMEDIATLEY
Visual Management Impacts:
The business STATUS is COMMUNICATED to ALL employees
The process becomes TRANSPARENT we learn to SEE
If we have the ability to SEE, we have the potential to CONTROL
Process Control results in CONSISTENT PERFORMANCE
Transparency enables PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION and WASTE
ELIMINATION
Transparency is the platform for IMPROVEMENT & INNOVATION