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HYDRO PROJECT IN A STATE PARKS ZONE:

POSSIBLE IMPLICATIONS AND ECO-COMPENSATIONS


BY: ENGKU MUHAMAD FARIS ENGKU NASRULLAH SATIMAN
DATE: 03 MAY 2016

PRESENTATION OUTLINE
1.0

Introduction

2.0

Objectives

3.0

Location (Map)

4.0

Implications & PES

5.0

Conclusion

(4.1) Rafflesia breeding sites


(4.2) Mineral lick sites
(4.3) Fish sanctuary

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Peaking station: generally run to meet peak demand for electricity (peak
hours)
Development is way upstream: greater water potential & less area to hold
deep, large volume of water
Eco-consequences of any large scale projects can be either immediate,
often delayed and irreversible

2.0 OBJECTIVES / 3.0 MAP


Peak 1

Implications:
positive /
NEGATIVE

Peak 2

Salt lick ground


Fish sanctuary
Rafflesias breeding sites

reservoir
spillway

upper

TNBs dam

lower

Eco-compensation: Payment
for Environmental Services
(PES)
Peak 3

4.0 IMPLICATIONS & PES

4.1
Rafflesia Breeding Sites

Bud

Lowland/hill 1 & 2 forest (300 to


1600 m.a.s.l)
Grow on Tetrastigma host vines
Sensitive Tetrastigma on physical
disturbances
Habitat range reduced (5 sp. in
Peninsular Malaysia)

Tetrastigma (Vitaceae)
root

Relatively new environs affect


biological aspects: i. Ratio M:

Anthers

Stigmatic
hairs
Female

Male

F
ii. Proximity
M to F
iii. Reprod.
Success
iv. Pop.
status:
active,
dynamic
or
dormant

Rafflesia keithii

Rafflesia tengku-adlinii

Research grants on agamospermy with viable seeds in Rafflesia spp.


Incentives to locals/aborigines to preserve and conserve Rafflesia spp. community via:
i. Special trails for restricted number of tourists not too close to the plant
ii. Patrolling (protect) the sites from illegal collectors
.Further land use conversions should be strictly prohibited in the area where the species
colonies thrive (legal enforcement)

4.0 IMPLICATIONS & PES

4.2
Mineral Lick Sites

Reduced or loss of natural mineral lick sites


(element: Na)
Loss of faunal diversity visiting the sites (seeking
new salt lick spot)

Direct mineral lick

Mammalian herbivores (ungulates) might strongly


affected plant leaves: low Na
Direct licking or geophagy: fulfil mineral
demand
Salt-lick might be sex- & age- specific linked
(e.g. white-tailed deer), same for Cervus
unicolor & Muntiacus muntjak in Malaysia?

Geophagy

Functions:
i. rapid somatic growth (yearling males)
ii. gestation & lactation (females)

Preserve the remaining natural salt-lick


sites (if any) in any geological
circumstances
Introduce artificial mineral/salt blocks
or stones
Prohibit further land conversion (e.g.
agriculture: pesticide/herbicidecontaminated soil
Research grants on population studies
of wildlife with special reference to salt
lick

4.0 IMPLICATIONS & PES

4.3
Fish Sanctuary

Change in hydrological
regime (lotic lentic)
Weed infestation: [DO],
surface turbulence,
evapotranspiration
Cabomba furcata

Cultural eutrophication

Algal bloom

Flourishing of exotic fish species (displace native species?)


Apparent changes in species composition over a time-course
Sensitive fish species in sanctuary replaced with more tolerant ones

Exotic fish species

Cyprinids

Application of EM to the affected water body


Incentive to the local people to control aquatic
weeds via manual clearing
Incentive to anglers to catch exotic fish species
Stocking programmes (local species)
Strict screening on the entry and use of new
boats / equipments to be use in the water
Extensive monitoring programmes
Conservation zone (sanctuary) equipped with
special fence or screen in its perimeter
Long-term research grants on the study of
limnological succession in reservoir:
scarce in Malaysia

5.0 CONCLUSION
TNB

State

Ministry
(Federal)

Reservoir

Research
Inst. /
Universities

Local people /
Aborigines

Preservation &
Conservation
Sustainable development

End-user?

Legal
enforcement