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Cooling Towers

Syed Ahsan Bukhari


Trainee Mechanical Engineer (Utilities)

Scheme of Presentation
Cooling Tower ?
Types
Basic Terminologies
Cooling Tower Components
Mechanical Drive Arrangement
Drive Shaft
Gearbox
Fan
Troubleshooting
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Cooling Tower
Cooling towers are heat removal
devices used to transfer process
waste heat to the atmosphere.
Cooling towers use evaporation of
water to remove process heat and
cool the working fluid to near
the wet-bulb air temperature .
Divided into two major categories:
Natural Draft
Mechanical Draft

Natural Draft
They use the buoyancy of the
exhaust air rising in a tall chimney
to provide the draft.
Characteristics:
Very expensive to construct.
Low maintenance cost.
Effected and largely dependent on
atmospheric conditions.

Mechanical Draft
Use either single or multiple fans to
provide flow of a known and
controllable volume of air.
Characterized by lesser
dependence on atmospheric
conditions and allowance for
controlled cooling.
Divided into two major types:
Forced Draft
Induced Draft

Forced Draft
Fan is located in the ambient air
stream entering the tower.
Characteristics:
High air entrance & low exit
velocities
Prone to re-circulation hence less
efficient.
In cooler environment fans can get
ice accumulation creating
imbalance.

Induced Draft
Fan is located in the exiting air
stream drawing air through tower.
Characteristics:
High air discharge & low entrance
velocities.
Warm air at exit denies ice
accumulation on fan blades.

Cooling Tower Terminologies


Approach: is the difference between the temperature of water leaving the
tower and the Wet Bulb Temperature of air entering the tower.
Range: is the difference between the temperatures of water entering and
leaving the tower.
Drift: is the evaporated water carried out of the tower with the air.
Bleed off: is the amount of water purposely drained from the circulating
water to dilute it with fresh water.

Cooling Tower Components


Drift Eliminators: are assembly of
baffles used to catch and condense
the tower water into the basin
which would otherwise be carried
away as drift.
Fill (Packing): is used to distribute
circulating water over a large
surface area for effective heat
transfer.
Louvers: are blade or passage
type assemblies installed at air inlet
phase of C.T. to reduce sunlight
striking water inside and to direct
air on to the Fill.
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Cooling Tower Components


Cowl (Fan Cylinder): used to
allow smooth flow for discharging
air.FRP is usually the preferred
material due to its formability,
strength, light weight and
resistance to water & weathering.
Nozzle: used for controlled
distribution of water in a spray
pattern either by pressure or
gravity.
Fan Pitch: angle which fan blades
make with the plane of rotation.
Cooling Tower Basin: acts as
reservoir for cold water and towers
primary foundation.
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Cooling Tower Specifications


Cooling Tower
Design Water Flow (m3/h)

11000

Design Inlet Water Temp (oC)

43.6

Design Outlet Water Temp (oC)

32

Design Inlet Air Wet Bulb Temp


(oC)
Leaving Air Temp (oC)

28.39
41.1

No. of Distribution Headers

Distribution Nozzles/ Cell


Louvers Material
Internal Framework Material
Fan Deck Material
Fill Material
Drift Eliminator (DE) Material
Distribution Header Material

156
Timber
Redwood
Redwood
PVC
UPVC
PVC / GRP Wrapped

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Mechanical Drive General Arrangement

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Driveshaft Assembly
Driveshaft
Assembly
Manufacturer
Twiflex Limited
Model
70p Type 6-6
Nominal Tube
180
Diameter (mm)
Tube Material
Carbon Fiber
Coupling Material Stainless Steel
Flexible
Rubber Trunnion
Components
Retaining Hoop
Galv. Mild Steel
Material

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Drive Shaft
Transmits power from motor to the
input shaft of gearbox.
Characterized by being able to
absorb shock loads, reduce noise,
operate in hostile environments
and being able to accept high level
of misalignment.

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Gearbox

Gearbox
Manufacture
r

David Brown

Model #

VB2-280CT

Type

Bevel/Helical

Gear Ratio

10.22 : 1

Lubrication

Splash / Forced

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Setting Input Shaft End Float


Shaft is pushed and pulled to
check for end float reading on Dial
Indicator.
At desired end float reading,
locknut is secured.

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Setting Intermediate/ Output Shaft End Float


Setting
Assemble shaft, partially tighten side covers and rotate shaft to check ensure
bearing rollers are correctly seated followed by top cover installation.
Measure gap between side covers and case and add that to shafts minimum
recommended End Float.
Divide the sum by 2.
Add shims as thick as found value between side cover and the case.

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Setting Backlash
Measured by placing dial indicator at
the heel of input shaft bevel gear.
Backlash can be adjusted by moving
in or out input shaft or intermediate
shaft bevel gear.

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Setting Tooth Contact Pattern


OEM recommends tooth contact pattern to extend over 50-60% of
face width (Central Toe Contact).
Minor adjustments may need to be made, while keeping each shafts
end float within recommended limits.

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Cooling Tower Fan


Manufacturer

Howden Fans

Model

26ENF6 EP

Diameter (m)

7.924

No. of Blades / Fan


Fan Speed (rpm)
Fan Tip Clearance (mm)
Air Delivery / Fan
(m3/sec)
Rotation

6
145
39.6
441.5
Clockwise

Blade Material
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GRP

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Model #
26 ENF6 EP
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Fan diameter in feet

ENF Type of impeller


6
EP

No. of Blades
Leading Edge protection coating
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Fan Exploded View

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Fan Blades Installation


U-bolts should be tight enough to
allow blade to be turned.
Use inclinometer at about 50mm
from blade profile end.
Set the desired angle by turning
the blade on each side.
Use inclinometer at the same
50mm distance on each blade for
the same angle.
Finally tighten each U-bolt to a
torque of 650 Nm.

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Blade Tip Clearance


Tip Clearance (s) is the distance
between blade tip and the cowl
( fan cylinder).
Recommended to be in the range
of 0.25-0.5% of fan diameter.

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Problem
Power absorption
high.

High Vibration

High Noise

Troubleshooting

Possible Cause

Solution

Static pressure higher


than specified.
Decrease blade
Airflow too high.
angle.
Blade angle too large.
Reducer
Check or replace
malfunctioning.
Reducer.
Lack of stiffness in
Reinforce support
support structure.
structure.
Drive alignment
Realign.
incorrect.
Driver bearing damage. Repair or replace
Fan Blade drainage
Open the drainage
holes are blocked.
holes.
Airflow higher than
specified.
Decrease blade
angle.
Static pressure too
high.
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