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Transformer Vector Groups

The vector group determines the phase displacement


between the primary and the secondary winding.
The three phase transformer windings can be
connected several ways. Based on the windings'
connection, the vector group of the transformer is
determined.
The transformervector groupis indicated on the
Name Plate of transformer by the manufacturer.

Transformer Vector Groups

These vector groups are especially important


when two or more transformers are to be
connected in parallel.

If two transformers of different vector groups are


connected in parallel then phase difference exist
between the secondaries of the transformers and
large circulating current flows between the two
transformers which is very detrimental.

Transformer Vector Groups


Group I: zero phase displacement between the primary and the
secondary.
(0 o'clock, 0) - delta/delta, star/star)
Group II: 180 phase displacement.
(6 o'clock, 180) - delta/delta, star/star)
Group III: 30 lag phase displacement of the secondary with
respect to the primary.
(1 o'clock, -30) - star/delta, delta/star)

Transformer Vector Groups


Group IV: 30 lead phase displacement of the secondary with
respect to the primary.
(11 o'clock, +30) - star/delta, delta/star

The angular displacement of secondary with respect to the


primary are shown as clock positions

Standard code for transformer vector


groups
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has devised the
standard code for determination of transformer vector
group.
According to IEC the code for vector group consist of 2 or more
letters followed by one or two digits.

The first letter is Capital letter which may be Y, D or Z, which


stands for High voltage side Star, Delta or interconnected star
windings respectively.

The second letter is a small letter which may be y, d or z which


stands for low voltage side Star, Delta or interconnected star
windings respectively.

The third is the digits which stands for the phase difference
between the high voltage and low voltage sides.

Phase rotation

In this convention the transformer high voltage side phase


voltage (line to Neutral) represented by Minute hand is
fixed at 12 O'clock position (This position is always the
reference point) and the low voltage side phase voltage
(line to neutral) is represented by the Hour hand which is
free to move.
Phase rotation is always anticlockwise. (international adopted
convention)
Use the hour indicator as the
indicating phase displacement
angle.

Phase rotation

Because there are 12 hours on a clock, and a circle consists out of 360, each hour
represents 30.

Thus 1 = 30, 2 = 60, 3 = 90, 6 = 180 and 12 = 0 or 360.

The minute hand is set on 12 o'clock and


replaces the line to neutral voltage
(sometimes imaginary) of the HV
winding.
Because rotation is anti-clockwise, 1 = 30
lagging (LV lags HV with 30) and 11 =
330 lagging or 30 leading (LV leads HV
with 30)

To summarise:
Dd0
Delta connected HV winding, delta connected LV
winding, no phase shift between HV and LV.

Dyn11
Delta connected HV winding, star connected LV
winding with neutral brought out, LV is leading HV
with 30

Yy11
Star connected HV winding, Star connected LV
winding, LV is leading HV with 30

The phase-bushings on a three phase transformer are marked


either ABC, UVW or 123 (HV-side capital, LV-side small
letters)

Wye Delta connection for Yd11 vector group

A1A2, B1B2 and C1C2 are primary side


voltage phasors.
Similarly in the secondary side voltage
phasors are a1a2, b1b2 and c1c2.
Just observe that a1a2 is parallel to
A1A2, b1b2 is parallel to B1B2 and c1c2
is parallel to C1C2, this is because a1a2
and A1 A2 are in phase Similarly b1b2
and B1B2 are in phase and also c1c2 and
C1C2
are
in
phase.

Wye Delta connection for Yd11 vector group

Now compare the primary side


vector diagram and secondary
side vector diagram. From the
diagram it is clear that as if the
secondary side phasor triad
has
been
rotated
counterclockwise with respect to
primary
side.
From
the
geometry it can be confirmed
that this angle is 30 degree. As
the
phasors
are
rotating
counterclockwise,
so
the

Wye Delta connection for Yd1 vector group

Delta Wye connection for Dy1 vector group

Delta Wye connection for Dy11 vector group

Yy0 vector group

Yy6 vector group

Undoubtedly transformers belonging to the same group can


be operated in parallel without any difficulty.

It is impossible to run in parallel, transformers in Group1


and 2 with transformers in Group3 and group4.

Also transformers in group1 and group2 cannot be operated


in parallel as there is 180 degree phase difference between
the two secondary windings. This can only be rectified by
changing
internal
connection.

If group3 and group4 transformers will be


connected in parallel then there will be 60
degrees phase difference between their
secondary windings. But with transformer
external connection modification the phase
difference of secondaries can be made zero.
So group3 and group4 transformers can be
operated in parallel with some
external
modification.
.

Dy1 vector group

Dy11 vector group

Group I

Example: Dd0 (no phase displacement between HV and LV)

The conventional method is to connect the red phase on A/a,


Yellow phase on B/b, and the Blue phase on C/c.

Other phase displacements are possible with unconventional


connections (for instance red on b, yellow on c and blue on a)

By doing some unconventional connections externally on one


side of the trsf, an internal connected Dd0 transformer can be
changed either to a Dd4(-120) or Dd8(+120) connection. The
same is true for internal connected Dd4 or Dd8transformers.

Group II
Example: Dd6 (180 displacement between HV
and
LV)
By doing some unconventional connections
externally on one side of the transformer, an
internal connected Dd6 transformer can be
changed either to a Dd2(-60) or Dd10
(+60)
connection.

Group III
Example: Dyn1 (-30 displacement between
HV and LV)
By doing some unconventional connections
externally on one side of the transformer, an
internal connected Dyn1 transformer can be
changed either to a Dyn5(-150) or Dyn9
(+90)
connection.

Group IV
Example: Dyn11 (+30 displacement between HV and LV)
By doing some unconventional connections externally on one side of
the trsf, an internal connected Dyn11 transformer can be changed
either
to
a
Dyn7(+150)
or
Dyn3(-90)
connection.

By doing some unconventional connections externally on


both sides of the transformer, an internal connected group
III or group IV transformer can be changed to any of these
two groups.

Thus, an internal connected Dyn1 transformer can be


changed to either a: Dyn3, Dyn5, Dyn7, Dyn9 or Dyn11
transformer, by doing external changes on both sides of
the transformer.

This is just true for star/delta or delta/star connections.


Changes for delta/delta or star/star transformers between
group I and group II can just be done internally.

Dy1 vector group

Dy11 vector group


You can only parallel Dy1 and Dy11 by crossing two incoming phases and
the same two outgoing phases on one of the transformers, so if you have a
DY11 transformer you can cross B & C phases on the primary and
secondary to change the +30 degree phase shift into a -30 degree shift which
will parallel with the Dy1, assuming all the other points above are satisfied.
If vector grouping is ignored there is an absolute certainty of creating a short
circuit if you try and parallel a DY1 and a DY11