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Organizational Development

Assumptions and
Values

Prof. Ashish O
Tiwari

Organizational Development
The term organizational development was coined by
Richard Beckhard in the mid-1950s.Organizational
development is an acronym of two words i.e.,
organization and development
Organization development (OD) is a deliberately
planned effort to increase an organization's relevance
and viability
Organizational development is the framework for
change, and often times a manager helps to lead this
change
Prof. Ashish O
Tiwari

Values and Assumptions


Constitute an integral part of and distinguishes OD
from other improvement strategies

Provide structure and stability for people as they


attempt to understand the world around them c

Humanistic, optimistic, democratic

Prof. Ashish O
Tiwari

Values and Assumptions


Constitute an integral part of and distinguishes OD
from other improvement strategies

Provide structure and stability for people as they


attempt to understand the world around them

Humanistic, optimistic, democratic

Prof. Ashish O
Tiwari

Prevailing paradigms for organizations


1900 to 1920s

Prof. Ashish O
Tiwari

Prevailing paradigms for organizations


1960s and beyond

Prof. Ashish O
Tiwari

Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions

Warren Bennis
OD practitioners share a set of
normative goals
Richard Beckhard
Several assumptions about the nature and functioning
of organizations

Robert Tannenbaum and Sheldon Davies


Values in transition

Prof. Ashish O
Tiwari

Normative goals
by Warren Bennis

1. Improvement in interpersonal competence


2. A shift in values so that human factors and
feelings come to be considered legitimate
3. Development of increased understanding
between and within working groups in order to
reduce tension
4. Development of more effective team
management
5. Development of better methods of conflict
resolution

Prof. Ashish O
Tiwari

Organic versus mechanical systems


from Normative goals by Warren Bennis

Mechanical System

Prof. Ashish O
Tiwari

Assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations


by Richard Beckhard

1. The basic building blocks of an organization are


groups (teams)
2. An always relevant change goal is the reduction
of inappropriate competition
3. Decision making is located where the information
sources are
4. Controls are interim measurements, not the basis
of managerial strategy
5. Develop open communication, mutual trust, and
confidence between and across levels
6. People support what they help create

Prof. Ashish O
Tiwari

Values in transition from 1969 Industrial Management Review


by Robert Tannenbaumand Sheldon Davies

Prof. Ashish O
Tiwari

Values in transition from 1969 Industrial Management Review


by Robert Tannenbaumand Sheldon Davies

Prof. Ashish O
Tiwari

Implications of OD values and


assumptions
For dealing with individuals
For dealing with groups
For designing and running organizations

Prof. Ashish O
Tiwari

Implications for dealing with


individuals
Two basic assumptions:
Most individuals have drives toward personal growth
and development
Most people desire a higher level contribution to the
attainment of organization goals than most
environments permit

Prof. Ashish O
Tiwari

Implications for dealing with


individuals
Implications:
Ask
Listen
Support
Challenge
Encourage risk taking
Permit failure
Remove obstacles and barriers
Give autonomy
Give responsibility
Set high standards
Reward success
Prof. Ashish O
Tiwari

Implications for dealing with


groups
Assumptions
What occurs in the work group greatly influences
feelings of satisfaction and competence
Most people wish to be accepted and to interact
cooperatively with at least one reference group
Most people are capable of making greater
contribution to a groups effectiveness and
development
Group members should assist the leader for group
effectiveness
Prof. Ashish O
Attitudinal and motivational problems require
Tiwari

Implications for dealing with


groups

Implications:

Let teams flourish


Leaders should invest in groups
In time required for group development
Training time and money to increase group
members skills
Energy and intelligence in creating a positive
climate
Leaders adopt a team leadership style

Prof. Ashish O
Tiwari

Implications for dealing with


groups

Implications:

Group members receive training in group effectiveness


skills
Problem solving and decision making
Conflict management
Facilitation
Interpersonal communication
Encourage to deal with positive and negative feelings
From viewing problems as within the problem person to
viewing problems and solutions as transactional and asProf. Ashish O
Tiwari
embedded in a system

Implications for designing and


running organizations
Assumptions
The needs and aspirations of human beings are the
reasons for organized effort in society
It is possible to create organizations that on one hand
are humane and on the other hand are high
performing and profitable

Prof. Ashish O
Tiwari

Implications for designing and


running organizations
Implications:
An optimistic, developmental set of assumptions
about people is likely to reap rewards to both
organization and its members
The belief that people are important tends to result
in their being important
The belief that people can grow and develop
competently tends to produce that result
People are an organizations most important
resource

Prof. Ashish O
Tiwari

Thank You!

Prof. Ashish O
Tiwari