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Transom Analysis Comparison

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BRIDGE DESIGN

Comparison of Transom Design

CIVIL DEPARTMENT

BRIDGE DESIGN

Dated:- 25-OCT-2009

CONTENTS

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

ELASTIC THEORY

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

equilibrium, compatibility, and the constitutive behavior of

the materials, steel and concrete.

structure have been based on elastic theory and the basic

assumption that plane section remain plane, regardless of

the loading. However, it well known that disturbance do

occur in region near discontinuities, for example, at

concentrated load and at abrupt changes in member

dimensions.

subsequent to cracking is the use of Strut & Tie Models.

These models can give an excellent representation of the

flow of forces in disturbed regions of cracked system.

ELASTIC THEORY

THEORY

BERNOULLI HYPOTHESIS

DESIGN EXAMPLE

INTRODUCTION

ST.VENANTS PRINCIPLE

ASSUMPTIONS OF STM

BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF ELASTIC THEORY

under load.

that point in a manner given by the stress-strain diagram of

the material.

the section depends on the shape of the cross section.

and vertical) and flexural stresses, at any point in a beam

there are inclined stresses of tension and compression.

the flexural stresses are zero at the neutral plane.

BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM UNDER

ELASTIC THEORY

Figure 1.1

Behavior of

reinforced

concrete beam

under elastic

theory

BERNOULLI HYPOTHESIS

" Plane section remain plane after bending

design of reinforced concrete structures by

allowing a linear strain distribution for all

loading stages, including ultimate flexural

capacity

DESIGN EXAMPLE BASED ON ELASTIC THEORY

Specifications. The design methods presented throughout the

example are meant to be the most widely used in general bridge

engineering practice.

Material Properties:

Concrete density: Wc =0.15 kcf

Concrete 28-day compressive strength: fc = 4.0 ksi

Reinforcement strength: fy = 60.0ksi

RELEVANT SUPERSTRUCTURE DATA:

Number of girders: N=5

Deck overhang: DOH = 3.9375 ft

Span length: Lspan =120.0ft

Parapet height: H par = 3.5 ft

Deck overhang thickness: to = 9.0 in

Web depth: Do = 66 in

Bearing height: H bearing = 5.0 in

Superstructure Depth: H super = 10.23 ft

Design Step 8.2 - Select Optimum Pier Type

hammerhead pier is shown in Figure 8-1.

Pier

Design Step 8.3 - Select Preliminary Pier Dimensions

DESIGN STEP 8.4 - COMPUTE LOAD EFFECTS

DEAD LOAD

LIVE LOAD

OTHER LOADS

Braking Force

Wind Load From Super Structure

Vertical Wind Load

Wind Load On Vehicle

Wind Load On Sub Structure

Pier Live Loading

Temperature Load

Design Step 8.5 Design Pier Cap

Prior to carrying out the actual design of the pier cap, a brief

discussion is in order regarding the design philosophy that

will be used for the design of the structural components of this pier.

Of materials regardless of member dimensions. In this approach,

it is assumed that longitudinal strains vary linearly over the depth

of the member and the shear distribution remains uniform.

Furthermore, separate designs are carried out for vu and mu at

different locations along the member.

where the cap meets the column, or 15.5' from the end of the cap.

The governing force effects and their corresponding limit states

were determined to be:

Mu = 10706 k-ft

Vu = 1509 k

Design for Flexure

Mu = 10706 k-ft

f = 0.9

b = 60 in

= 0.002565

As = 31.20in2

Vu = 1509 k

v = 0.90

Av = 0.57 in2

smax = 24.00 in

INTRODUCTION

effects (M, N, V, T) simultaneously

useful design methods for shear critical structures and for other

disturbed regions in concrete structures

complex structural member with an appropriate simplified truss

models

encountered. There are, however, some techniques and rules,

which help the designer, develop an appropriate model

ST. VENANT'S PRINCIPLE

acting on the body will dissipate or

smooth out within regions that are

sufficiently away from the location of the

load"

STM BASIC PRINCIPLE

stress distribution in a structure is idealized as a system of

2. tension ties reinforcement

3. Nodes concrete

Compression Struts

Steel is Strong in Tension

Tension Ties

ASSUMPTIONS OF STM

Reinforcement adequately anchored

Forces in struts and ties are uniaxial

Tension in concrete is neglected

External forces applied at nodes

Prestressing is a load

Equilibrium must be maintained

DESIGN OF B - & D REGIONS

understood and the entire flexural behavior can be

predicted by simple calculation

Discontinuity) regions (such as deep beams or corbels),

engineers' ability to predict capacity is either poor

(empirical) or requires substantial computation effort (finite

element analysis) to reach an accurate estimation of

capacity

B - & D REGIONS FOR SIMPLE SPAN BEAM

B- &

DRegions

for

Simple

Span

Beam

EXAMPLES OF STM MODELS

DESIGN EXAMPLE BASED ON STM

DESIGN STEPS

strut-and-tie model

2. Check size of bearing nodal zone stresses

3. Select area of ties

4. Check strength of struts

5. Provide adequate anchorage for the ties

6. Provide crack control reinforcement

7. Sketch required reinforcement

STEP 1 DRAW IDEALIZED TRUSS MODEL OF PIER CAP

STEP 2 SOLVE FOR MEMBER FORCES

STEP 3 CHECK STRENGTH

STEP 4 CHOOSE TENSION TIE REINFORCEMENT

a) Top Reinforcement

over Column, Tie AB :

Ast = Pu/ fy

b) Bottom Reinforcement

at Midspan

Ast = Pu/ fy

c) Stirrups, Ties BG & CH

n = Pu/ Ast fy

STEP 5 CHECK CAPACITY OF STRUT

fcu controlled by tensile strain

in tie at smallest angle to strut

Es = Pu/ Ast Es

= 295/ 60 X 29000 = 1.695 X 10-3

STEP 5 SKETCH THE REQUIRED REINFORCEMENT

CIVIL DEPARTMENT

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