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The Field of

Organizational
Behavior

Chapter 1

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Learning Objectives
1. Define the concepts of organization and
organizational behavior (OB).

2. Describe the field of organizational behaviors


commitment to the scientific method and the three
levels of analysis it uses.

3. Trace the historical developments and schools of


thought leading up to the field of organizational
behavior today.

4. Identify the fundamental characteristics of the field


of organizational behavior.

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Learning Objectives

5. Describe how the field of OB today is being shaped


by the global economy, increasing racial and ethnic
diversity in the workforce, as well as advances in
technology.

6. Explain how changing expectations about the desire


to be engaged in work, the need for flexibility in
work, and the pressure to promote quality have
influenced the field of OB.

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Organization

A structured social system consisting of groups


and individuals working together to meet
some agreed-upon objectives.

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OB Field Characteristics
Applies scientific method to managerial
problems
Studies individuals, groups, and organizations

Multidisciplinary in nature

Enhances organizational effectiveness and


individual well-being

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Practical Managerial
Problems
How goals can enhance job performance
How jobs can be designed to enhance employee
satisfaction
When individuals and groups make better decisions
How organizational communication can be improved
How work-related stress can be alleviated
How leaders can enhance team effectiveness

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Three Levels of Analysis

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Multidisciplinary Roots
Psychology
Sociology
Anthropology
Political science
Economics
Management science

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Organizational Effectiveness and
Quality of Life at Work
Theory X vs. Theory Y

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OB Matters
Satisfied employees
More pleasant at work
Lower costs
Higher productivity
Less likely to quit

Unsatisfied employees
Reject organization policies
More likely to steal
Increased mental and physical illnesses

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Fundamental Assumptions
Dynamic Nature of Organizations
Open Systems Model

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Fundamental Assumptions

No One Best
Contingency Approach

Behavior
Contingent upon certain conditions

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OB History

Scientific management
Efficient design of jobs

Human relations movement


Hawthorne studies

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OB History
Classical organizational theory
Efficient organization structure
Division of labor
Bureaucracy

OB as a social science

The Infotech age

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Prominent Trends
Increasingly Global Businesses
Multinational enterprises (MNE)
Repatriate
Culture shock
Expatriate
Changing management perspectives
Convergence hypothesis
Divergence hypothesis

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Prominent Trends
Increasingly Diverse Workforce

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Prominent Trends
Responding to Technology Changes
Leaner organizations creation
Downsizing
Outsourcing

Virtual organization creation

Increasing telecommuting use

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Prominent Trends
Responding to Changing Expectations
Increasing engagement
Increasing flexibility
Idiosyncratic work arrangements
Flexible hours
Contingent workforce
Compressed workweeks
Job sharing
Voluntary reduced work time

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Prominent Trends
Responding to Changing Expectations

The quality revolution


Total quality management
Benchmarking
Malcolm Baldridge quality award

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