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# Heat Exchangers

Design Considerations
Heat Exchangers
Key Concepts
Heat Transfer Coefficients
Naming Shell and Tube Exchangers
Safety In Design of Exchangers
Controls for Exchangers
Heat Exchangers
4

Key Concepts
"Allow me to summarise:
Hot stuff this side, cold stuff that side. Make the cold
stuff hotter, but use inbetween stuff to not let the
cold stuff actually touch the hot stuff. Cold stuff
and hot stuff not allowed to destroy inbetween stuff
and vice versa. Some kinds of inbetween stuff
works better than others. Might need pumps or fans
to make the whole shebang work a little better,
too.

- Topher Gayle
General Sizing Method
Pick an exchanger type (S&T, Plate & Frame etc.)
Choose counter or co-current flow
Choose number of tube passes (for S&T)
draw Temp diag, Calculate the LMTD and Q
Calculate the LMTD Correction Factor (F) if more
than two tube passes
Choose a U value based on tables
Calculate the Area , A = Q/ U LMTD F
Perform rigorous rating as required (not 470)
8-9

Key Concepts
Heat Lost =
Heat Transfer Heat Absorbed

Q = U A Tln
Either Either
Q = m Cp T, Q = m Cp T,
or or
Q = m Hevap Q = m Hevap

## m Cp hot (T1-T2) = U A Tln = m Cp cold ( t1 - t2)

9

Combined Equations

## Calculate the unknowns

Determine the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) value in
order to calculate the Area (A) to size the exchanger
Duty Considerations - Q
Distillation Columns
Start-up and Shut-down usually require the column

## to operate at full reflux

Feed and Outlets are shut down
100% of Overhead vapour being condensed

100% of reflux being boiled
Compositions can be completely different (reactor not
online), therefore diff. temps
Is the duty in the simulation truly the worst-case
duty?
For our purposes assume yes
26-27

## Mean Temp Difference

T1 (T1 t 2 ) (T2 t1 )
Q U A
(T1 t 2 )
ln[ ]
(T2 t1 )
t2 Always
Draw This
Graph !!
Counter Current Exchanger Temp Profile
t1 T1

t2 T2
T2 t1
26-27

## Mean Temp Difference

Correction for not strictly counter or co-
current flow
200
T1 Exchanger Temperature Profile

T2

## t2 Cold Side temp & flow direction

38 45 30
t1
27-28

Temperature Correction
Factor
Form of the heat transfer equations is:

Q UATm U AFTlmtd

## The factor F is usually determined

T1 = 200 Graphically
T1 = 200 As A Single Pass
T2 = 38 Counter Current
t1 = 30 t2 = 45 - temp cross?
t2 = 45 T2 = 38
t1 = 30
27-28

Temperature Correction
Factor
Form of the heat transfer equations is:

Q UATm U AFTlmtd

## The factor F is usually determined

T1 = 200 Graphically
T1 = 200
T2 = 38 As a 2 Pass exch
t1 = 30 - temp cross
t2 = 45 - low F factor
t2 = 45 T2 = 38 t1 = 30
28-39

Temperature Correction
Factor MTD Correction Factor
1

0.9
F = MTD Correction Factor

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

P = Temperature Efficiency
R = 20
R = 1.2 t 2 t1 T T2
P R 1
R=0.6 T1 t1 t 2 t1
R=0.4

## R = 11.2, P = 0.0882 , F = 0.471

30

Condensing LMTD
Divide the Exchanger into segments
Evaluate U and LMTD for each segment

## Multicomponent, noncondensables? Arghh!

T1

T2 T2
t2

T3

t1

Distance
Counter to the Co-current
Use Counter Current
maximize LMTD (minimize Area, cost

etc.)
minimize utility reqts

Use Co-current
minimize outlet utility temperatures

## during turn down - see later

reduced fouling
9-11

Determining U
Tables for U values
Determine U via fundamental equations
note that fouling factors often overshadow

## much of the accuracy that the fundamental

equations provide
Details of exchanger configuration required

## Computer Programs / Vendors

vendors can and will provide exch sizing

## Be knowledgeable enough to critique their

design
11-13

Determining U
Physical configuration affects U values

## the exchanger. If through poor

configuration, (ie..inappropriate tube
length, or number of tubes) the
assumptions are invalidated, then the
11-13

## U Values & Velocity

Film Coef from Velocity
(water)

3500
180 F
3000
(BTU/hr sq ft F)

2500
Film Coef

2000 100 F

1500
40 F
1000
500
0
0 5 10 15
Tube Velocity (ft/sec)
11-13

## Physical Config & U Values

The following factors all affect the velocities
of the fluids in the exchanger
Tube Length

Tube Dia

Baffle Spacing

boiling
11-13

## U Values & Velocity

Adding a Tube Pass doubles the velocity of the
liquid on the tube side

## Decreasing Baffle Spacing Increases Velocity

Shellside
1.5 in
1.5
B in Baffle Pitch
or Spacing

affle "Window"
Opening to
ow Parallel
Tubes, as
hell Side Passes
om One Baffle
rea to the Next
Physical Configuration & U
values
Tube Layout

## Square Rotated Square Triangular

Preferred for cleaning (high heat x-fer)
26
13

Velocity Limitations
Maximum Velocity is Dictated by:
Vibration

Erosion

Hydraulic

## Exchanger Physical Size

13-15

Velocity Limitations -
Vibration
Usually a Shell Side Issue
Vibration Can Cause
Collision Damage, Baffle Damage, Fatigue

## & Tubejoint Failure

Causes
Turbulent buffeting

Fluidelastic whirling

## Vibration induced by flow parallel to the

tubes
13-15

Velocity Limitations -
Vibration
Analysis
determine the natural frequency of the tubes
vibration of tubes between baffles
vibration on U bends
account for damping (fluid properties, tube
stresses etc.)
determine critical flow velocity
minimum cross flow velocity that the span may

## vibrate unacceptably large amplitudes.

Analysis by Programs or TEMA Standards
15

## Tube Side Velocity

Limitations - Erosion
High Velocity causes thinning of the metal walls (erosion).
It can be avoided by maintaining velocities (ft/sec) below those given by this equation.

## TEMA say 2 < 6000 to eliminate tube end erosion

100
Verosion
lb / ft 3
15-16

Velocity Limitations -
Hydraulics
Available pressure drop will limit velocity
The P rises to the square of the velocity

60 EXCH 0 psig
psig
CV
P
16-17

Velocity Limitations -
Physical
Limitations on Shipping,
Floor space etc. all make a difference
(dont forget about pulling the tube
bundle)
U values of interest

## Condensing U values are very high (500

to 800)
Reboiler U values are very high ( 700)
liq / liq U values in middle (100 - 300)
Cooling / heating gases
(desuperheating) have very low U
values (<30)
Shell Side
Fluid Leaks
TEMA to Atmosphere

Easier Expensive
to Clean

Large Annular
Less Space = Low
Costly U Value

Cheap,
Hard to clean
Exchanger Selection
of fixed tube sheet, when thermal expansion
between shell and tubes is an issue
i.e. shell side fluid and tube side fluid

## temperatures differ by more than 200 F

When cleaning tubes mechanically is

## important (dirty fluids on tube side)

When errosion may occur on tube side
52

Reboilers
Boiling Phenomena
Boiling Regimes Nucleate Boiling

1.00E+07

1.00E+06
(W/sq m)

Film Boiling
1.00E+05
Q

1.00E+04

1.00E+03
1 10 100 1000 10000
Temp Differential (C)
Nucleate boiling at shell/tube T = 20 to 50 F
53-57

Reboilers
Sizing
Common to use maximum heat flux

15,000 BTU/hr sq ft

## Fundamental Equations can be used to

determine the best T
Max Flux is a function of the Number of active
nucleation which is in turn affected by the
materials of construction, the fluid properties
and the temperature difference
55

Reboilers
Heat Flux can be increased with special
systems (i.e. sintering, brazing, flame
spraying, electrolytic deposition). Sand
blasting , scoring tends not to provide
stable long term enhancement.

## Trapped Nucleation Sites

Vapour
Heat Exchanger Safety
What Can Fail?
Control System Failure

## Shell & Tube

Tube can rupture

Tubes separate from Tube Sheet

Blocked in exchanger causes cool fluid to
experience temperatures of hot fluid
Plate & Frame

Gaskets can leak mixing hot and cold sides , or
releasing either fluid to surroundings
Heat Exchanger Safety
Implications
Fires, Explosions, Toxic Releases
Controlling Exchangers
Q = U A Tln
A is fixed
U varies slightly with velocity
Tln is the controlling variable

## Design Duty Reduced Duty

Hot In Hot In
Cold Out
Cold Out
Hot Out Hot Out
Q = m c T
Cold In Cold In
58

Controls
Liquid / Liquid - control on cooling media

C/w
59

Controls
Liquid / Liquid - control on process

C/w
60

## Controls - Steam Heating

Steam Pressure Control

T
Steam Trap
61

## Controls - Steam Heating

Condensate Level Control
Workshop - Size
Condenser
Duty: 153 x 106 KJ/hr
T1 = 213.3 C
T2 = 35 C
t1 = 30 C
dew point: 150 C (to be confirmed in
PRO 2)
U gas/water - 0.51 kW/ m2 C
U condensing / water - 0.85 kW/ m2 C
No Class Friday ?

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