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L O G O

VERTEBRATES
ANIMALS

PUTRI AGUSTINA, M.Pd


Biology Education Program
Universitas Muhammadiyah
Surakarta
What are they???
CHARACTERISTICS
Bilateral symmetry
Two pairs of jointed locomotor appendages
Outer covering of protective cellular skin
Metamerism found in skeletal, muscular, and nervous system
Well-developed coelom
Well-developed internal skeleton of cartilage and bone
Well-differentiated head, with highly developed brain enclosed
by skull. Craniate chordates (Greek kranion, skull)
Well-developed sense organ located on the head
EVOLUTION OF VERTEBRATES
CLASSIFICATION OF
VERTEBRATES

PISCES

AMPHIBIANS

Vertebrates REPTILES

AVES

MAMMALS
COMPARISON
Aspek Pisces Amfibi Reptil Aves Mammalia
Habitat Air Amphibius Darat Darat Darat
Penutup Sisik Kulit Karapax Bulu Rambut
tubuh atau sisik
Respirasi Insang Paru-paru Paru-paru Paru-Paru Paru-paru
dan
permukaan
kulit
Alat gerak Sirip Tungkai Tungkai Sayap-kaki Tangan-
depan depan kaki
belakang belakang
Ruang 2 3 4 4 4
jantung
Suhu tubuh Poikiloterm Poikiloterm Poikiloterm Homoioter Homoioter
m m
Reproduksi Ovipar Ovipar Ovipar/ Ovipar Vivipar
Ovovivipar
Fertilisasi Eksternal Eksternal Internal Internal Internal
FISH (PISCES)
The most diverse and successful vertebrate
group
Key characteristics: a vertebral column, jaws and
paired appendages, gills, single-loop circulation,
and nutritional deficiencies
Ectothermic, aquatic vertebrates
Skin generally covered with scales
Their limbs are modified into fins for swimming
They breathe with gills
They lay eggs that must be in water
Divided into 3 class: Placodermi (Aphstohyoids),
Chondricthyes (Elasmobranchi), and Osteichtyes
(Telostomi)
PLACODERMI (APHSTOHYOIDS)
Extinct fishes
Armored fishes
Exoskeleton form of bony
plates or shields
Endoskeleton is bony
Hyoidean gill-slits are
complete
Primitive jaws are seen
Survived up to Permian
period of Paleozoic era
Ex. Climatius,
Bothriolepis
CHONDRICTHYES (CARTILAGENOUS
FISHES)
Paired nostrils
Skeleton completely
cartilagenous with no
endoskeletal bone
No swim bladder
Scales dermal placoid
when present
Gill arches internal to
gills
Freshwater and marine
species
OSTEICHTHYES (BONY FISHES)
Endoskeleton made up of
bone
Jaws and paired appendages
Gill arches internal to gills
Gills covered by bony
operculum
Dermal scales not placoid
Many forms have swim
bladder
Arose in freshwater, moved
into saltwater
AMPHIBIANS
Key characteristics: leg, cutaneous respiration,
lungs, pulmonary veins, partially divided heart
Lungs and skin used as adult respiratory organs
Gills present in larvae, retained into adulthood in
some neotinic forms (salamander)
Heart with two atria and one ventricle three
chambered
Skin is naked or with bony dermal elements
Ectotermic
Lack claws on their toes
Ordo Urodela (Caudata)-
Salamanders
Tail maintained
throughout life
Limbs 1-2 normal
pairs
Elongated trunk and
long tail
Can retain larval
characteristics in
adult forms
(paedomorphic)
Order Salientia (Anura) Frogs and
Toads
Loose tail as adults
Caudal vertebrae fuse
to form long inflexible
urostyle related to
saltatorial locomotion
Long hind limbs
developed for
saltatorial locomotion
Vocal cords well
developed
Ear modified for
reception of airbone
sound waves
Order Gymnophiona (Apoda) -
Caecilians
Elongated, snake-like,
with no limbs or girdles
No vocal cords or
airborne sound
detection
Some retain scales
embedded in skin
Notochord persists
Minute eyes, lack lids
Chemosensory tentacle
on head
REPTILIA
Key characteristics: amniotic egg, dry skin,
thoracic breathing
First fully terrestrial vertebrates
Development of cledoic (closed/self-contained)
Lungs for respiration
Heart with two atria and vetricle partially or totally
divided
One occipital condyle
Skin with epidermal scales or bony plates
Ectothermic, sometimes called heliotherms
because they can regulate body temperature by
using solar radiation
REPTILIAN SPECIES
AVES (BIRDS)
Key characteristics: feathers, flight skeleton
Endothermic rather than ectothermic
Reptile scale into a feather which is the only
unique characteristic of this class
Four-chambered heart
Epidermal scales on bill, legs, feet
Bill instead of teeth, teeth absent in modern
forms
Modifications for flight include hollow bones,
pectoral appendages modified as wings, air sacs,
large eyes, and large cerebellum
Modifications for vocalization
BIRD SPECIES
MAMMALIA
Key characteristics: hair and mammary glands
Possess hair/fur
Mammary glands to nourish young
Endothermic
Viviparous (oviparous in one order)
Two occipital condyles
Zygomatic arch and secondary palate
Single dentary bone in lower jaw
Dentary-squamosal jaw articulation
Muscular diaphragm
Prototheria (Egg-Laying
Mammals)
Metatheria (Marsupial
Mammals)
L O G O