You are on page 1of 37

KWARA STATE UNIVERSITY,

MALETE
PROJECT TOPIC: DEVELOPMENT OF A TWO STROKE, ONE CYLINDER, AIR
COOLED, PETROL FUEL INTERNAL COMBUSTION (IC) ENGINE
BY
HUSSAIN HUSSAIN .O. (12/67AM/027)
AJIBOYEDE EMMANUEL OLORUNTOBA (13D/67AM/030)
SUPERVISOR: DR H.I OGUNTADE

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 1

SEMPTEMBER 2016
OVERVIEW
PROBLEM STATEMENT
OBJECTIVES
SCOPES
THESIS ORGANIZATION
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF ENGINE
CLASSIFICATION OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
TWO STORKE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF TWO-STROKE ENGINES
COMPONENT OF TWO STROKE ENGINE
WORKING PRINCIPLE 2
ENGINE SPECIFICATION
DESIGN CALCULATION
MATERIAL SELECTION
REFERENCES

3
PROBLEM STATEMENT

An estimated millions of internal combustion engines are


imported into Nigeria yearly with no plan for locally developed
engine, this project is to produce a two stroke, one cylinder
internal combustion engine.

4
OBJECTIVES

The objective of this project is to develop of a 2-stroke,one-


cylinder, air-cooled, and petrol fuel internal combustion
engine.

5
SCOPES

The Scopes of the project are:


Literature review about two-stroke engine.
Disassembling of sample two-stroke engine to take parts data
Three dimension Computer Aided Design (CAD) modelling of original production of
the engine which is design of the disassembled part of the two stroke, one cylinder
internal combustion engine using CAD method that is Solid Work Software.
Design calculation
Design the fabrication of parts based on the measured dimension.
Parts assembling
test
6
THESIS ORGANIZATION
Chapter 2: Find literature about the basic component of two stroke engines,
operating cycle of two stroke engine and advantage and problem of two stroke
engines. This chapter is about the theory of two stroke engine.
Chapter 3: This chapter will explain the methodology of this research including
specifications, design calculation and material selection
Chapter 4: This chapter will contain the fabrication of the parts
Chapter 5: the chapter will consist of assembling and testing
Chapter 6: This chapter will conclude and summarize overall the project.
Chapter 7: Recommendations for the future works are also presented in this chapter

7
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
The internal combustion engine is the most widely use power
producing device in the world today. It has reached that
position through its compatibility with cheap and available
hydrocarbon fuels, and its combination of low cost,
ruggedness and reliability, high power output for a given
engine operating cycle. All internal combustion engines
depend on the exothermic chemical process of combustion:
The reaction of a fuel, typically with air, although other
oxidizers such as nitrous oxide may be employed.

8
HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF ENGINE

1680 - Dutch physicist, Christian Huygens designed (but never built) an internal
combustion engine that was to be fueled with gunpowder
1807 - Francois Isaac de Rivaz of Switzerland invented an internal combustion engine that
used a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen for fuel. Rivaz designed a car for his engine - the
first internal combustion powered automobile. However, it was a very unsuccessful design.
1824 - English engineer, Samuel Brown adapted an old Newcomen steam engine to burn
gas, and he used it to briefly power a vehicle up Shooter's Hill in London.
1858 - Belgian-born engineer, Jean Joseph tienne Lenoir invented and patented (1860) a
double-acting, electric spark-ignition internal combustion engine fueled by coal gas. In
1863, Lenoir attached an improved engine (using petroleum and a primitive carburetor) to
a three-wheeled wagon that managed to complete an historic fifty-mile road trip

9
1862 - Alphonse Beau de Rochas, a French civil engineer, patented but did
not build a four-stroke engine (French patent #52,593, January 16, 1862).
1864 - Austrian engineer, Siegfried Marcus, built a one-cylinder engine with
a crude carburetor, and attached his engine to a cart for a rocky 500-foot
drive. Several years later, Marcus designed a vehicle that briefly ran at 10
mph that a few historians have considered as the forerunner of the modern
automobile by being the world's first gasoline-powered vehicle
1873 - George Brayton, an American engineer, developed an unsuccessful
two-stroke kerosene engine (it used two external pumping cylinders).
However, it was considered the first safe and practical oil engine.
1866 - German engineers, Eugen Langen and Nikolaus August Otto
improved on Lenoir's and de Rochas' designs and invented a more efficient
gas engine.
10
1876 - Nikolaus August Otto invented and later patented a successful four-stroke engine,
known as the "Otto cycle".
1876 - The first successful two-stroke engine was invented by Sir Dougald Clerk.
1883 - French engineer, Edouard Delamare-Debouteville, built a single-cylinder four-stroke
engine that ran on stove gas. It is not certain if he did indeed build a car, however,
Delamare-Debouteville's designs were very advanced for the time - ahead of both Daimler
and Benz in some ways at least on paper.
1885 - Gottlieb Daimler invented what is often recognized as the prototype of the modern
gas engine - with a vertical cylinder, and with gasoline injected through a carburetor
(patented in 1887). Daimler first built a two-wheeled vehicle the "Reitwagen" (Riding
Carriage) with this engine and a year later built the world's first four-wheeled motor vehicle.
1886 - On January 29, Karl Benz received the first patent (DRP No. 37435) for a gas-fueled
car.
1889 - Daimler built an improved four-stroke engine with mushroom-shaped valves and two
V-slant cylinders.
1890 - Wilhelm Maybach built the first four-cylinder, four-stroke engine
11
CLASSIFICATION OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

12
TWO STROKE INTERNAL COMBUSTION
ENGINE
The two stroke engine is widely used at the small size and very large size
ends of the engine market. In its small size spark ignition engine forms, the
two stroke cycle engine is relatively cheap, compact and light, simple, and
robust. This is the basis of its market appeal in mopeds, scooters,
motorcycles,, and snowmobiles, in portable devices such as chain saws and
bush cutters, in agricultural and construction devices such as lawn mowers,
disc saws, and snow blowers, in the outboard marine engine arena, and in
light and remotely piloted aircraft. . it completes the thermodynamic cycle in
two movements of the piston (compared to twice that number for a four-
stroke engine)
13
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF TWO-
STROKE ENGINES
In 1878, Dugald-clerk, a British engineer introduced a cycle
which could be completed in two strokes of the piston rather
than as in the case with the four stroke cycle engines. The
using this cycle were called two stroke cycle engines. In this
engine suction and exhaust strokes are eliminated. Here
instead of valves, ports are used. The exhaust gases are
driven out from engine cylinder by the fresh charge of fuel
entering the cylinder nearly at the end of the working stroke.
14
In later development by Day and some other engineers, the automatic valves
were eliminated, and all there events controlled by the piston through ports in
the cylinder. A deflector is fitted to the piston head with the object (only
partially achieved) of directing the fresh mixture upwards and preventing it
from escaping or mixing with the exhaust gases. In the "three-port" engine,
as it is called, the mechanical system is reduced to the minimum of three
working parts, and this has been the pattern for the great majority of two-
stroke engines ever since. The diagrams are explanatory only, and not
complete or exact in detail, but they are approximately correct in proportions
and design of the actual engines.

15
CLASSICATION OF TWO STROKE IC
ENGINE

SPARTK IGNITION (SI) ENGINE : in SI engine, the air fuel is


mixed before compression. The air fuel mixture is
compressed to a sufficient temperature that introducing the
spark plug initiate combustion
COMPRESSION IGNITION (CI) ENGINE: in CI engine, only the
air is compressed to a sufficiently high temperature that
injection of fuel initiate combustion

16
THE BASIC COMPONENTS OF A TWO-STROKE SI
ENGINE

17
WORKING PRINCIPLE
Intake . Crankcase compression .Transfer/Exhaust
.Compression .power

18
WORKING PRINCIPLE

19
METHODOLOGY

ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS

methodology

20
CRITICAL COMPONENTS
PISTON Piston bore = 44.5 mm
Height, H = 44.5
Material = aluminium alloy

21
CONNECTING ROD AND CRANKSHAFT

The major dimensions are:-


Connecting rod length = 102.5 mm
Diameter piston pin bearing = 20.00 mm
Diameter crankshaft bearing = 30.00 mm
Material = alluminium

22
GORGEON PIN . CYLINDER HEAD

Piston pin length = 42.90 mm It major dimensions are as follows:


Diameter piston pin, outer = 22.00mm Cylinder head length = 150 mm
Diameter piston pin, inner = 18.00 mm Cylinder head width = 150 mm
Material = cast carbon steel Material = aluminium alloy LM25
23
CRANKCASE

Some of the major dimensions of the engine block are:


Cylinder block length = 139.00 mm
Cylinder block width = 104.00 mm
Internal diameter upper = 61.75 mm
Internal diameter bottom = 89.95 mm
Material = aluminium alloy

24
DESIGN CALCULTIONS
Where:
AB = RCS = Radius of the crankshaft

BC = LCR = Length of the connecting rod

LS = Length of the stroke


dc = Cylinder diameter
= Crankshaft angle
TDC = Top dead center
BDC = Bottom dead center

25
Cylinder Swept Volume (Vs)
Vs = Cylinder Area x Stroke Length
Vs = Ac x L =
Where: Vs = Cylinder Swept Volue (cm3)
Ac = Cylinder Area (cm2)
dc = Cylinder Diameter (cm)
L = Stroke Length (distance between the TDC and BDC)
(cm)
Vs=233cm3

26
ENGINE SWEPT VOLUME (VE)

Ve
= Total Cylinders Swept Volumes of the engine
Ve = n x Vc
Ve = n x Ac x L = n x
Where: Ve = Engine Swept Volume (cm3)
n = Number of Cylinders
Yc = Cylinder Swept Volume
Ve=223 x 1 =223cm3

27
COMPRESSION
RATIO (r)
r=

r=
Where: r = Compression ratio
Vs = Cylinder swept volume (combustion chamber volume)
(M3 or L)
Note: Increase the compression ratio increase engine power
ENGINE VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY
nv = =0.1225/0.223=55%

nv =
Where: nv = Volumetric efficiency
Vair = Volume of air taken into cylinder (M 3 or L)
28
Vc = Cylinder swept volume (M or L)
3
ENGINE
INDICATED TORQUE (TI): {15}

Ti =

Ti =
Where: Ti = engine indicated torque (Nm)
imep = indicated mean effective pressure (Nm2)
A = Cylinder Area (m2)
L = Stroke Length (n)
n = Number of cylinders
Z = 1 (for 2-stroke engines), 2 (for 4-stroke engines)
= Crank shaft angle (1/5)
29
Vi.
ENGINE INDICATED POWER (Pi): (15)
Pi =

Pi = = Pi =

Pi = P i = _____________(vii)
Pi = Ti x w = Ti x Pi =

Where: imep = Indicated mean effective pressure (N/M 2)


Ac = Cylinder Area (M2)
L = Stroke Length (M)
n = Number of Cylinder
N = engine speed (rPm)
Z = 1 (for 2 stroke engine)
Vc = Cylinder swept volume (M 3)
30
Ve = Engine swept volume (M3)
Ti = Engine indicated torque (NM)
FLYWHEEL
DESIGN
Mass moment of inertia of the flywheel is;
If = P i =
Where: If = required mass moment of inertia, Kg M 2
Ne = Average engine speed, rev/min
E = Kinetic energy transfer (J), = Pi =
= Ratio of one cylinder (taken from the table below)
W = Indicated work for revolution (J/rev)
K = 50/P = coefficient of speed variation
And P = percentage by which the speed is permitted to
vary from N.

31

RECIPROCATING UNBALANCE SINGLE CYLINDER ENGINE
The total oscillating force in the y direction (the direction of piston movement,
usually vertical) is
Fx = (MP + MCL) RW2 (cos + R cos 2 ) + (Me + Mez) RW2 cos
L

Where: Mp = Mass of piston and piston pin, Kg


Me = Equivalent mass at the crankpin, Kg
The equivalent mass at the crankpin includes the crankpin and counter weights,
and can be calculated using;
Me =

Where: Me = Equivalent mass at crankpin, Kg


Mcp = Mass of crankpin, Kg
Mea = Material mass supporting crankpin, Kg
Mcb = Counter weight mass opposite crankpin, Kg
R = Crankpin radius = half of piston stroke, m
32
Ra = radius of center of gravity of Mca, m
Rb = Radius of center of mass Mcb, m
MATERIAL SELECTION

For our final project we are to select materials for various parts for a
generic two stroke engine. This project will involve various methods of
determining processes and ways to diagnose a situation. The aim is to
select materials for various parts for a two stroke-engine similar to the
engine we are to reproduce. The main components of the two stroke
internal combustion engine to be considered are the connecting rod,
piston, crankshaft and the crankcase. After careful consideration of all
the parts of the two stroke engine, its important to determine the
best materials that suit the following parts:
33
Some of the factors that will be considered to determine our final materials are: Machinability,
strength, stiffness, thermal expansion, cost, corrosion resistance, fatigue, and weight. All four parts
had similar qualifications but the reasoning and the weight of each criterion varied between parts
based on the level of importance.

34
REFERENCES
John B. Heywood, Eran Sher, The two stroke cycle engine, its
development,operation and design. ISBN 0-7680-0323-7
Blair G.P (1996) Design and stimulation of two stroke engine. SAE International.
ISBN 1-56091-685-0
John B. Heywood. Internal combustion engine. ISBN 0-07-028637-x.
Rowland S. Benson (1979: internal combustion engine vol. 2)
Charles Fagette Taylor(1985) ICE in the theory and practice, vol. 1.
Richard Stone (1999) Introduction to internal combustion engine (3 rd edition)
C.F Caunter, motor cycles, a technical history, sciences, museum, London, HMSO,
1970.
Gordon P. Blair. The basic design of two stroke engines. ISBN 1-56091-008-9
35
F. Baudequein, P. Rochelle some scavenging models for two stroke engine. Proc. 1. Mec, vol.
194,1980,pp 203-210.
C.F Taylor, E.S. Taylor, the internal combustion engine. Vol. 1 and vol. 2 pergamme, oxford 1979.
Bremer, R. (1979). A practical treatise on engine crankshaft torsional vibration control.SAE paper No.
SP-445-750763. Warrendale, PA.
Erickson, M.A. (1971). Fatigue testing and crankshaft development. Transactions of the ASAE 14(1):
1-2, 6.
John Deere Service Training. (1991). Fundamentals of service engines. Moline, IL: John Deere Corp.
SAE. 1992a. maximum allowable rotational speed for internal combustion engine flywheels. SAE
standard J1456. SAE handbook, Vol.3. Warrendale, PA: SAE.
Heywood, J.B., Internal combustion engine fundamental, McGraw-Hill Inc, 1988.
Hardenborg Horst O. (1999) The middle ages of the internal combustion engine. ISBN 0768003911.
International journal of technology, single cylinder 125cc stepped piston engine for moblility and
portable power generation application (2016) ISBN 2086-9614
Degarmo, P. E. (2003). Wikipedia. Retrieved December 13, 2008, from Forging:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forging
Incorporation, M. S. (2008). Ball Material Selection. Retrieved December 13, 2008, from Ball-Tec:
http://www.precisionballs.com/ball_material_selection.htm

36
THANKS FOR
LISTENING
37