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10 -

10 -

1
2
3
4
5
6
1

- Lagrangian

1
2
Coulomb
1

1 Lagrange
2
3 Lagrangian
4 Lagrangian
Lagrange

Heaviside

-
-


Coulomb

-
Newton

C A B

-

2


e 1A e xA e 2A e yA

A n A e1A e 2A

n A n B

v Av NA n A vA e A v NA n A v TA
v B v NB n A vB e A v NB n B v BT

1
2

2
2


A B 0

P Q

P S

P
A
2

A B

N v A n A v B n B ( v A v B ) n A v NA v NB 0 c

v NA v A n A , v NB v B n A

v Av NA n A vA e A v NA n A v TA
n
A

v v n vB e A v NB n B v BT
B B
N
A

2
N v NA v NB 0

( N 0) (
N 0)

2
N v NA v NB 0

T Tx e x Ty e y vTA vTB
2

tA tB 0

t N t NA (x, t ) t NB (x, t ) 0
B
t N B A
B A B

t TA t A t NA n A , t BT t B t NB n A

t TA t BT 0

t TA t BT 0


n A n B

2

N v NA v NB 0

t N t NA (x, t ) t NB (x, t ) 0

tN N 0

N 0

N
0 t
N 0

2

B P A
g N B , t

A Q B P P
A
B P A A
x B B , t P
A

AB x B B , t x A A , t x Bx y
A 2
z
A 2
2
B
y B
z A 2
2


1

AB x , t x , t x x
B B A A B
y
A 2 B
y z
A 2 B
z
A 2 2

g N
,t P
B

A A X B X A
P
A P A

1 (x B x A ) n A 0
g N ( , t ) min
B
AB ,
A 0 (x B x A ) n A 0

g N B , t

2
10.1

9
A 3
A
x 2 1 3

1 r r (1 r )
2
r A , 1 r 1
y 1 2 3

B
B
x 4S
, s B, 0 s 1
y 1.5

n B n A
B P Q

PQ
2
10.1
B P Q

x x y y
12
A 2 A 2
PQ x x
B B A A B B

1 2(1 r ) r (1 r ) (1 r ) r (1 r )
2 2 2 2 12
3 3 3
2 2 2

d PQ
0
dr

1
PQ

r 3 3r 3
4

r 0.2451 Q

x Q , y Q 1.6023, 0.6624
2


AB
P

2
ABAQUS/Standard /Explicit

/Standard
surface contact
element

/Explicit

(general contact)

Global Model LCD Submodel


2
/Standard /Explicit

1 /Standard

/Explicit

2

2 /St /Ex /St


/Ex

3 /St /Ex /St

/Ex
4 /Ex
/St
/Ex /St
/St
/Ex
3

1 Coulomb
2

3
Coulomb
Coulomb
A B x

a) t T (x, t ) F t N (x, t ), T ( x, t ) 0
b) t T (x, t ) F t N (x, t ), T (x, t ) k (x, t )t T (x, t ), k 0

t N
0

(a)

(b)

3
Coulomb

a) t T (x, t ) F t N (x, t ), T (x, t ) 0

b) t T (x, t ) F t N (x, t ), T (x, t ) k (x, t )t T (x, t ), k0

T
Coulomb
a)

b)

3
Mohr-Coulomb

f QN 0

M-C

M-C

c
c tan

3

Coulomb Coulomb
f (t N , t T ) t T F t N 0

4
Lagrangian
L
ALE

A
A tA uA C

tA uA 0, tA C 0, uA C 0
t tA tB , u uA uB
(1881)

P
p( x)
a 2 x 2
12
4

lagrange

4
Lagrange
Lagrange

( , t ) j
Lagrange


, j ( , t ) C 1 , 0
c


( ) j , j ( ) C 1 , 0 c
PL ( v, v, , ) p G L 0 v 0 , j

G L ( N )d
C

p [vi , j ji vi ( bi v i )]d vi t i d
t

Lagrange
C-1
Lagrange

4
Lagrange
Hu-Washizu Lagrange
Hu-W

0 p L vi ( ji , j bi v i )d t vi ( ji n j t i )d

c [v NA t NA v NB t NB vA tA vB tB N ]d
Lagrange


ji , j bi v i , ji n j t i t
A B
4
Lagrange
0 p L vi ( ji , j bi v i )d t vi ( ji n j t i )d

c [v NA t NA v NB t NB vA tA vB tB N ]d

tA 0 tB 0 c , t TA t TB 0 c
t NA t BN c


t NA t NB 0 c

0
c

N
N 0 c
4
penalty

Lagrange


1 N
2

Lagrange

v p p ( v, v ) p G p 0 v 0

G p ( N2 ) H ( N )d 1 N 0
H ( N )
2 C

0 N 0
4
penalty

Heaviside

L


t NA t NB N
0

t NA

N A
N
B
N
v v H N


g x 2 s x 2 m X 2 s u 2 s X 2 m u 2 m

g g


Lagrange
e g

Lagrange
beta

4
Lagrangian
(Perturbed)
v , C 1p PL p G PL 0 v 0 , C 1

1 2
G PL C N d

2
Lagrange

Lagrangian (Augmented)
p AL ( v, v, , ) p G AL 0 v 0 , j

G AL C N ( v ) N2 ( v) d
2

5
- Lagrange

Lagrangian UL TL TL

ALE L
Eulerian
E
L
5
Lagrange


v(X, t ) v C 0 A , v C 0 B , v v u

C0

viA ( X, t ) A
N I ( X)viI (t)
I A

viB ( X, t ) N I ( X)viIB (t )
I B
A B

vi ( X, t ) N I ( X)viI (t )
5
Lagrange

Lagrange C-1
(, t ) C
I () I (t ) I () I (t ), (, t ) 0
I

vi ( X) N I ( X)viI , () I () I , () 0

p viI f iIint f iIext M ijIj v jJ d T f int f ext Md


v T r

r
N N I viIA niA I iI ni
N v B B

I C A I C B

A B
N N I v NI
5
Lagrange

( )d v G T G v
N NI G N d
IJ J I IJ NJ IJ I J
C C

v
I
r
iI iI v NI G IJT J G I IJ v NI 0
I C I C

riI 0 M IJ v iJ f iIext f iIint I C u



v G

NI NI r vI rI v NI G IJT J I IJ v NJ 0
I C I C
5
(
Lagrange
)

r 0 M v f ext f int
I IJ J I I C
I


v T f int f ext Md
v T G T 0 v 0
iI u I



f int f ext G T 0
d I 0
Gv 0 I G IJ v NI 0
5
Lagrange

Lagrange

Lagrange

Lagrange

A B
Lagrange
A B L

5
Lagrange
Lagrange

Lagrange L

Lagrange

L
L

5
10.2 -
Lagrange

v v 0 1 2

1 2

M 11 M 12 M 13 d1 f 1 1
M
21 M 22 M 23 d f
2 2 1 1 0 1 0
M 31 M 32 M 33 d3 f 3 0

1 2
Lagrange


5
10.2 -

M 1 a1 f 1 1 0, M 2 a 2 f 2 1 0, M 3 a3 f 3 0
I Id
a
Gd 0 [1,1,0 ]d v1 v 2 0
G E10.2.2 K G T d f ext

G 0 0

ext
k1 0 0 1 d1 f1
0 k
2 k2 1 d 2 f 2

0 k2 k2 0 d3 f3

1 1 0 0 1 0
kI I
33
44
5
10.3
4
A

v x ( , t ) N 1A 0 N 2A 0 N 3B 0 N 4B 0
B
d
v
y ( , t ) 0 N1
A A B
0 N2 0 N3 0 N4

d T [v x1 v y1 v x 2 v y 2 v x 3 v y 3 v x 4 v y 4 ]
N 1A N 3B 1 , N 2A N 4B , x/


n n ,n
A A
x
A T
y 0, 1 T
, n B 0, 1
T
5
10.3

10.5.17


N 1 n xA N 1 n yA N 2 n xA N 2 n yA N 3 n xB N 3 n yB N 4 n xB N 4 n yB

0 N 1A 0 N 2A 0 N 3B 0 N 4B
Lagrange

1
( , t ) [1 ]
2
G 10.5.19
1 0 2 0 1 0 2 0 1
G T d
0 6 0 1 0 2 0 1 0 2

1
2 y
x

5

von Neumann Euler

Euler von Neumann

Lagrange

Crunier-Mroz

Coulomb

Coulomb
(c)


(d) Coulomb
(e) Crunier-Mroz

(e)
Coulomb

6.1 Lagrange
n 6.1 1-2
1. 6.1 3-5
(E10.2.5) (10.6.7)
2. 6.1 6-11
v1 v 2
3.

0
(10.6.3) (10.6.6) (10.6.9)
n+1 6.1 12-13

Lagrange
1
2

3 ABAQUS









Lagrange