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You are on page 1of 29

Chapter 23

Already!!

Go AP Physics Students!

Mirrors

Mirrors form images using the property of

light called reflection, unlike lenses which

form images using refraction.

is glass coated with a reflective metallic

substance.

Plane Mirrors

A ray diagram is used to

determine the location of the

image in a mirror or lens.

appears to be behind the

mirror.

The rays of light diverge at

the location of the image.

When the rays diverge, the

image is called a virtual

image.

Plane Mirrors

Notice the distance of the

object and image from

the mirror. For a plane

mirror,

do = di

is another important

feature. For a plane

mirror,

ho = h i

The ratio of hi/ho is

called magnification.

Plane Mirrors

Plane mirrors form virtual images.

distance. do = di

Magnification = 1

Example

What is the minimum vertical length

of a plane mirror needed for a

person to see a complete head to

toe image of himself?

Spherical Mirrors

Spherical mirrors are reflecting

surfaces with spherical geometry.

the mirror is called concave.

surface, the mirror is called convex.

Concave Mirrors

Concave mirrors focus light

at a single point.

to the mirror reflect through

the focal point.

radius of curvature.

image formed is real. You

could project an image on a

carefully placed card.

Concave Mirrors Ray

Diagrams

Optical Axis - a line through the center of

the mirror that intersects the surface of

the mirror.

rays intersect

Ray Diagrams

Draw the mirror, the optical axis, the center of

curvature,and the focal point.

1. Draw the first ray from the object to the mirror parallel to the

optical axis, and reflecting through the focal point.

2. Draw the second ray through the center of curvature.

3. A third ray travels from the object through the focal point

and to the mirror. It reflects parallel to the mirror.

Concave Mirror Ray Diagram

placed beyond C.

Three rays are

drawn.

The image is real,

inverted, located

between C and F,

and reduced.

Concave mirrors Three

situations

If do >C, then f<di<C

and is real, reduced,

inverted.

and is real, inverted,

and enlarged. (no

picture)

virtual and enlarged.

Mirror Equations

The image and object distances are

related by

using

Sign Conventions for

Spherical Mirrors

Example

A concave mirror has a radius of

curvature of 30cm. If an object is

placed a)45cm b) 20 cm c) 10 cm

from the mirror, where is the image

formed and what are its

characteristics?

Example

An object is placed 20cm in front of

a diverging mirror that has a focal

length of -15cm. Use a ray diagram

to determine whether the image

formed is real or virtual. Find the

location of the image using

equations.

Spherical Aberrations

Spherical mirrors

focus light well for

small angles of

incidence (and

reflection) but

produce blurry images

for larger angles of

incidence.

Parabolic mirrors

focus parallel rays

from distant objects

at one focal point.

Lenses

Lenses focus light by refracting light

to form an image.

Biconvex lenses are convex on both

surfaces and cause rays to converge.

Biconcave lenses are concave on

both surfaces and cause light to

diverge.

Lenses

Three Rays to Draw!

First ray: parallel to optical axis and

refracting through focal point.

Second ray: called the chief ray

passes from the object through the

center of the lens un-refracted.

Third ray: through the focal point

and refracting parallel to optical axis.

Lens Ray Diagram

If object is beyond

the focal point, a

real inverted

image if formed.

If the object is

between the focal

point and the lens,

a magnified

virtual, upright

image is formed

Concave lenses

Concave lenses

form virtual

images.

Lens Equations

Are exactly the same as mirror

equations!

Example

An object is 30 cm in front of a

biconvex lens of focal length 20 cm.

Use a ray diagram to locate the

image. Discuss the characteristics

of the image.

Homework

Pg 755 # 45, 49, 54, 55, 59, 62, 63,

69 71, 75

on MONDAY.

Combinations of Lenses

The image of the first lens becomes the

object of the second lens!

opposite side of the second lens, consider

the image of the first lens to be a virtual

object for the second lens and do becomes

negative.

Example

Consider two lenses similar to those

illustrated in fig 23.19. Suppose the

object is 20 cm in front of lens L1

which has focal length of 15 cm.

Lens L2, with focal length of 12 cm,

is 26 cm from L1. What is the

location of the final image?

Homework

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