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ENERGY FLOW

AND SYMBIOSIS
ENERGY FLOW IN
ECOSYSTEM
PRODUCERS
mainly green plants that
manufacture their own food.
affect the lives of their consumers

because they are at the beginning of


the food chain.
provide food, energy and oxygen for

other organisms in the food chain.


CONSUMERS
organisms that cannot make
their own food and depend on
producers for food and energy.
obtain their energy directly or

indirectly from producers.


Herbivores plant eaters
Carnivores eat other

animals
Omnivores eat both plants

and animals
Scavengers feed on bodies

of dead animals
DECOMPOSERS
use dead matters as food.
break down dead organisms into

simpler substances to enable the


materials locked up in them to
be returned to the physical
environment and be used again
by green plants.
CLASSIFICATION OF
ORGANISM BASED ON
NUTRIENT REQUIREMENT
FUNCTION SOURCE NAME
ORGANIC CHEMOORGA
COMPOUNDS -NOTROPH

INORGANIC CHEMOAUTO-
ENERGY COMPOUNDS TROPH

SUNLIGHT PHOTOTROP
H
FUNCTIO SOURCE NAME
N
ORGANIC
HETEROTRO
COMPOUND
CARBON PH
S
SOURCE
INORGANIC
AUTOTROP
COMPOUND
H
S
FUNCTION SOURCE NAME
OXYGEN AEROBIC
NITRITES,
NITRATES & ANOXIC
ELECTRON SULFATES
ACCEPTOR ORGANIC ANAEROBI
COMPOUNDS C,
FERMENTA
TIVE
FOOD CHAIN
a way of describing the
flow of energy in food
through a community.
arrows are used to show

the direction in which


the energy flows.
Green plants >
Grasshopper>
Frog>
Bird>
Hawk
FOOD WEB
in nature, different food chains
occur in a community. These food
chains connect and overlap to
form a network of food chains.
show how the same source of

food maybe part of several


different food chains.
SYMBIOTIC
RELATIONSHIP OF
ORGANISMS
Symbiosis - close and often
long-term interactions between
two or more different organisms.
The term symbiosis was first
used in 1879 by the mycologist
Heinrich Anton de Bary, who
termed it "the living together of
unlike organisms".
Mutualism
Mutualism is an interaction
between two species in which
both benefit.
Commensalism
Commensalism is a type of
symbiosis where one organism
benefits, but the other is unaffected.
Parasitism
Parasitism is a relationship of two
different species where one
organism termed the parasite,
benefits at the expense of the host
species.
Predation
Predation is an interaction
between species in which one
species uses another species as
food.