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FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOS

Komposit ini berupa serat/fiber yang


ditanam dalam matriks yang biasanya
bersifat lebih lunak, sehingga dihasilkan
produk dengan rasio strength/weight yang
tinggi.

Material matriks meneruskan beban kepada


serat/fiber yang berfungsi menyerap stress.

Untuk mendapatkan strengthening dan


stiffening yang efektif, maka perlu
diketahui panjang kritik dari serat.
ENGARUH PANJANG SERAT

Sifat mekanik fiber-reinforced composite


dipengaruhi oleh sifat serat dan bagaimana
beban diteruskan/transmitted pada serat.

Transmittance beban dipengaruhi oleh


besarnya ikatan interfacial antara serat
dan matriks.

Dibawah stress tertentu, ikatan antara


serat dan matriks berakhir di ujung serat,
sehingga pola deformasi matriks yang
terjadi adalah seperti gambar di slide
berikut.
The deformation pattern in the matrix
surrounding of fiber, subjected to an applied
tensile
Ada panjang kritik tertentu yang diperlukan
agar penguatan oleh serat menjadi efektif.

Panjang kritik lc tergantung pada diameter


serat d dan tensile strength *f , juga pada
kekuatan ikatan serat-matriks c, menurut
persamaan berikut: *
f d
lc (3)
2 c

Contoh: untuk kombinasi kaca dan serat


karbon, lc = 1 mm (= 20 150 kali
dimeternya)
Stressposition profiles when fiber length is
equal to the critical length
Stressposition profiles when fiber length is
greater than the critical length
Stressposition profiles when fiber length is
less than the critical length
Kekuatan komposit ini disebabkan oleh
ikatan antara serat penguat dengan
matriks.
Rasio panjang/diameter (disebut aspect
ratio) dari serat penguat akan
mempengaruhi sifat-sifat komposit.
Semakin besar aspect ratio, maka semakin
kuat komposit. Oleh karena itu untuk
komposit konstruksi, serat yang panjang
lebih baik daripada serat pendek.
Akan tetapi serat panjang lebih sulit
diproduksi daripada serat pendek
Serat pendek lebih mudah diatur dalam
Oleh karena itu perlu adanya trade-off
antara jenis serat yang digunakan dengan
efek penguatan yang diinginkan.
Jumlah serat juga berpengaruh terhadap
kekuatan komposit; semakin banyak jumlah
serat, maka semakin kuat komposit yang
dihasilkan.
Batas maksimum jumlah serat adalah
sekitar 80% dari volume komposit. Jika
jumlah serat > 80% maka matriks tidak
dapat menutupi seluruh serat dengan
sempurna.
Serat dengan l >> lc (normal: l > 15 lc)
disebut kontinyu, sementara Serat dengan l
GARUH ORIENTASI DAN KONSENTRASI SE
Susunan atau orientasi serat terhadap
serat lainnya, konsentrasi serat, dan
keseragaman distribusi akan
mempengaruhi kekuatan dan sifat-sifat
lainnya dari fiber-reinforced composites.

Ada dua orientasi yang ekstrim: (i) sejajar


teratur, dan (ii) acak seluruhnya.

Serat kontinyu biasanya sejajar teratur,


sementara serat diskontinyu dapat teratur
atau acak.
Sifat mekanik dari komposit jenis ini
tergantung pada:
Perilaku stress-strain dari serat dan
matriks
Fraksi volume masing-masing komponen
Arah stress atau beban pada material
komposit.
Sifat-sifat komposit yang memiliki fiber
yang teratur sangat anisotropic, yaitu
besarnya nilai sifat tergantung pada arah
pengukuran.

Kita perhatikan perilaku stress-strain


apabila stress dikena-kan terhadap material
sejajar dengan arah serat, yaitu arah
Ilustrasi dari fiber-reinforced composites yang
(a) kontinyu dan teratur, (b) diskontinyu dan
teratur, and (c) diskontinyu dan acak
Misal perilaku stress vs strain dari fasa fiber
dan matriks sebagaimana ditunjukkan pada
gambar di slide berikut.

Dalam hal ini fiber bersifat sangat


rapuh/brittle dan matriks bersifat cukup
elastis/ductile.

Pada gambar tersebut:


*f : fracture strength in tension for
fiber
*m : fracture strength in tension for
matrix
*f : fracture strain in tension for fiber
(a) Schematic stressstrain curves for brittle fiber and ductile
matrix materials. Fracture stresses and strains for both materials
are noted. (b) Schematic stressstrain curve for an aligned fiber-
reinforced composite that is exposed to a uniaxial stress applied in
the direction of alignment; curves for the fiber and matrix
Perilaku stress-strain dari material komposit
ditunjukkan pada gambar (b).
Di daerah Stage I, fiber dan matriks mengalami
deformasi secara elastis; perilaku stress-strain
biasanya berupa kurva linier. Matriks mengalami
deformasi plastis, sedangkan fiber mengalami
stretch elastis.
Di daerah Stage II, hubungan antara stress dan
strain hampir linier dengan slope yang lebih
kecil daripada stage I.
The onset of composite failure ditandai dengan
saat fiber mulai rusak, yaitu pada saat strain =
*f.
Pada kondisi ini komposit belum rusak benar,
karena
Let us now consider the elastic behavior of a
continuous and oriented fibrous composite
that is loaded in the direction of fiber
alignment.

First, it is assumed that the fibermatrix


interfacial bond is very good, such that
deformation of both matrix and fibers is the
same (an isostrain situation).

Under these conditions, the total load


sustained by the composite Fc is equal to the
Fc loads
sum of the Fm Ff carried by the matrix phase
(4)
Fm and the fiber phase Ff, or
rom the definition of stress:
F A

quation (4) can be written as:

cAc mAm fAf (5)

dividing through by the total cross-


sectional area of the composite, we have:
Am Af (6)
c m f
Ac Ac

where Am/Ac and Af/Ac are the area fractions


of the matrix and fiber phases, respectively.
If the composite, matrix, and fiber phase
lengths are all equal, Am/Ac is equivalent to
the volume fraction of the matrix, Vm, and
Af/Ac and likewise for the fibers, Vf = Af/Ac.
Eq. (6) now becomes:
c mVm fVf (7)

previous assumption of an isostrain state means t

c m f (8)

hen each term in eq. (7) is divided by its respectiv


c m f
Vm Vf (9)
c m f
Furthermore, if composite, matrix, and fiber
deformations are all elastic, then

c c Ec m m Em f f Ef

the Es being the moduli of elasticity for


the respective phases. Substitution into
eq. (6) yields an expression for the
modulus of elasticity of a continuous and
aligned fibrous composite in the direction
of alignment (or longitudinal direction), as
Ecl EmVm EfVf (10.a)

Ecl Em 1 Vf EfVf (10.b)


Thus, Ecl is equal to the volume-fraction
weighted average of the moduli of elasticity
of the fiber and matrix phases.

Other properties, including density, also


have this dependence on volume fractions.

for longitudinal loading, that the ratio of the


load carried by the fibers to that carried by
the matrix is
Ff Ef Vf
(11)
Fm EmVm
EXAMPLE 1
A continuous and aligned glass fiber-
reinforced composite consists of 40 vol% of
glass fibers having a modulus of elasticity of
69 GPa and 60 vol% of a polyester resin
that, when hardened, displays a modulus of
3.4 GPa.
a. Compute the modulus of elasticity of this
composite in the longitudinal direction.
b. If the cross-sectional area is 250 mm 2 and
a stress of 50 MPa is applied in this
longitudinal direction, compute the
magnitude of the load carried by each of
the fiber and matrix phases.
c. Determine the strain that is sustained by
SOLUTION

a. The modulus of elasticity of the


composite is calculated using eq. (10.a):
Ecl EmVm EfVf 3.4GPa
0.6 6.9GPa 0.4
= 30 GPa

b. To solve this portion of the problem, first


find the ratio of fiber load to matrix
load, using eq. (11); thus,
Ff Ef Vf 69GPa 0.4
13.5
Fm EmVm 3.4GPa 0.6
Ff 13.5Fm
In addition, the total force sustained by the
composite Fc may be computed from the
applied stress and total composite cross-
sectional area Ac 2according to

Fc Ac 250mm 50MPa

250 106 m2 50 106 N m2 12500


N

this total load is just the sum of the loads


carried by fiber and matrix phases; that is,
Fc Fm Ff 12500
N

Fm 13.5Fm 12500
N
Fm 860N
Ff 13.5Fm 11640
N
c. The stress for both fiber and matrix
phases must first be calculated. Then, by
using the elastic modulus for each (from
part a), the strain values may be
A V A
determined.
m m c 0.6
250
mm2

150
mm 2

150 106 2
m


Af VfAc 0.4 250mm2 100mm2 100 106 m2

Fm 860N 6
m 6 2 5.73 10 Pa 5.73MPa
Am 150 10 m

Ff 11640 N 6
f 6 2 116
.4 10 Pa 116
.4MPa
Af 100 10 m
m 5.73MPa 3
m 1.69 10
Em 3.4 103MPa

f 116.4MPa 3
f 1.69 10
Ef 69 103MPa
A continuous and oriented fiber composite
may be loaded in the transverse direction;
that is, the load is applied at a 90 angle to
the direction of fiber alignment.
For this situation the stress to which the
composite as well as both phases are
c is
exposed m the
f same,
or (12)

This is termed an isostress state. Also, the


strain or defor-mation of the entire
composite is
c mVm fVf (13)
E
But since

c
c
Ect Ect
m
m
Em Em

f
f
Ef Ef

stituting the above three to equations (13) yields



Vm Vf
Ecl Em Em (14)
where is Ecl the modulus of elasticity in the
transverse direction.
Now, dividing through by yields

1 Vm Vf
(15)
Ect Em Ef

which reduces to

EmEf EmEf (16)


Ect
VmEf Vf Em 1 Vf Ef Vf Em
EXAMPLE 2
Compute the elastic modulus of the
composite material described in Example 1,
but assume that the stress is applied
perpendicular to the direction of fiber
alignment.
SOLUTION
According to eq. (13):
EmEf
Ect
1 Vf Ef Vf Em

3.4GPa 69GPa
5.5GPa
0.6 69GPa 0.4 3.4GPa
We now consider the strength characteristics of
continuous and aligned fiber-reinforced composites
that are loaded in the longitudinal direction.
Under these circumstances, strength is normally
taken as the maximum stress on the stressstrain
curve.
Often this point corresponds to fiber fracture, and
marks the onset of composite failure.
Table 1 lists typical longitudinal tensile strength
values for three common fibrous composites.
Failure of this type of composite material is a
relatively complex process, and several different
failure modes are possible.
The mode that operates for a specific composite will
depend on fiber and matrix properties, and the
Onset of composite failure
Table 1. Typical Longitudinal and Transverse
Tensile Strengths for Three Unidirectional
Fiber-Reinforced Composites.
The Fiber Content for Each Is Approximately
50 Vol%
If we assume that *f < *m, which is the usual
case, then fibers will fail before the matrix.
Once the fibers have fractured, the majority
of the load that was borne by the fibers is
now transferred to the matrix. This being the
case, it is possible to adapt the expression
for the stress on this type of composite, eq.
(7), into the following expression for the
longitudinal Vf *fVf of the composite *(17)
*cl 'm 1strength cl

Here m is the stress in the matrix at fiber


failure and, *f as previously, is the fiber
tensile strength.
m
The strengths of continuous and unidirectional
fibrous composites are highly anisotropic, and
such composites are normally designed to be
loaded along the high strength, longitudinal
direction.
However, during in-service applications
transverse tensile loads may also be present.
Under these circumstances, premature failure
may result inasmuch as transverse strength is
usually extremely lowit sometimes lies below
the tensile strength of the matrix.
Thus, in actual fact, the reinforcing effect of the
fibers is a negative one.
Whereas longitudinal strength is dominated
by fiber strength, a variety of factors will
have a significant influence on the
transverse strength; these factors include
properties of both the fiber and matrix, the
fibermatrix bond strength, and the
presence of voids.

Measures that have been employed to


improve the transverse strength of these
composites usually involve modifying
properties of the matrix.
Even though reinforcement efficiency is
lower for dis-continuous than for continuous
fibers, discontinuous and aligned fiber
composites are becoming increasingly more
important in the commercial market.
Chopped glass fibers are used most
extensively; carbon and aramid
discontinuous fibers are also employed.
These short fiber composites can be
produced having moduli of elasticity and
tensile strengths that approach 90% and
50%, respectively, of their continuous fiber
counterparts.
For a discontinuous and aligned fiber
composite having a uniform distribution of
fibers and in which l > lc, the longitudinal
strength (*cd) is given by the relationship:
lc
cd f Vf 1 'm 1 Vf
* *
(18)
2 l
where *f and m represent,
respectively, the fracture strength of the
fiber and the matrix when the composite
fails.
l c
*
If l < lcthen
cd' the 'm 1 Vf
Vf longitudinal strength is (19)
given
d
by
where d is the fiber diameter and c is the
smaller of either the fibermatrix bond
strength or the matrix shear yield strength.
Normally, when the fiber orientation is
random, short and discontinuous fibers are
used.
Under these circumstances, a rule-of-
mixtures expression for the elastic
modulus similar to eq. (10.a) may be
Ecd Kas
utilized, EmVm
EfVffollows: (20)

In this expression, K is a fiber efficiency


parameter that depends on and the Ef/Em
ratio.
Of course, its magnitude will be less than
unity, usually in the range 0.1 to 0.6.
Thus, for random fiber reinforcement (as
with oriented), the modulus increases in
some proportion of the volume fraction of
fiber.

Table 2, which gives some of the mechanical


properties of unreinforced and reinforced
polycarbonates for dis-continuous and
randomly oriented glass fibers, provides an
idea of the magnitude of the reinforcement
that is possible.
Table 2. Properties of Unreinforced and
Reinforced Polycarbonates with Randomly
Oriented Glass Fibers
Table 3. Reinforcement Efficiency of Fiber-
Reinforced Composites for Several Fiber
Orientations and at Various Directions of
Stress Application