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EDUC 6

ASSESSMENT OF STUDENT
LEARNING
Chapter 3
Social, Legal and Ethical Implications
of Tests

CRITICISMS
STUDENT: ARCHIE MORAL
OF TESTING
INSTRUCTOR: MRS. LUZVIMINDA LORENO
OBJECTIVE
At the end of the chapter, the learners are expected

to:

Evaluate the soundness of the criticisms of

testing; and

Cite the testing principles a teacher must

observe.
Criticisms of Testing
Criticisms of Testing
Invasion of Privacy
Creation of Anxiety and Interference in
Learning
Permanent Categorization of Students
Penalizing Bright and Creative Students
Discrimination against Minority Students
Measurement of Limited and Superficial Aspect
of Behavior.
Invasion of Privacy
Invasion of Privacy
- occurs when there is an intrusion upon your
reasonable expectation to be left alone. There
will be no invasion of privacy if the subject were
told how the test result will be used and if the
subjects volunteered.
Invasion of Privacy
Factors to consider to observe the right to privacy:
Anastasi and Urbina (1997)

1. Purpose of Testing
2. Relevance of Information
3. Informed Consent
4. Confidentiality
Invasion of Privacy
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
(Buckley Amendment) Chase(1976) derived implications for
teaching:
1. Teachers cannot post the grades of
students.
2. Teachers cannot display the works of their
students as an example of poor or excellent
work.
3. Teachers are not allowed to let the students
grade or correct any other students paper.
4. Teachers cannot ask students to raise their
hands to determine if they answered
Invasion of Privacy
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
(Buckley Amendment) Chase(1976) derived implications for
teaching:
5. Teachers cannot distribute test papers in a
manner that will permit other students to
observe the scores of others.
6. Teachers cannot assume that letters of
recommendations requested by students
will be kept confidential.
Creation of Anxiety and Interference in
Learning
Creation of Anxiety and Interference in
Learning
Relationship between Anxiety and Learning
Kirkland(1971): conclusion of His studies on How tests affect
students:
1. A mild degree of anxiety usually facilitates
learning, whereas a higher level of anxiety
hinders learning in most cases.
2. The less able student incurs a higher level
of anxiety from testing than capable ones.
3. Being familiar with the type of test to be
administered reduces anxiety.
Creation of Anxiety and Interference in
Learning
Relationship between Anxiety and Learning
Kirkland(1971): conclusion of His studies on How tests affect
students:
4. Highly anxious students do better that less
on measuring rote recall. They perform less
well, however, on test requiring flexibility in
thought.
5. Test anxiety increase with grade level.
6. Junior high school girls indicate that they
experience more anxiety that boys in
comparable levels.
Creation of Anxiety and Interference in
Learning
Anxiety in testing can be demonstrated by the
following examples:
1. Nail Biting
2. Pencil tapping
3. Squirming
4. Tapping/Shaking of feet
5.
Creation of Anxiety and Interference in
Learning
The following suggestions may help motives
students prepare for and take examinations
without creating unnecessary anxiety.
Creation of Anxiety and Interference in
Learning
1. Emphasize tests for diagnosis and mastery
rather than means of punishing students who
fail.
2. Avoid a Sudden death examination. Keep in
mind that passing and failing is a function of
one test only.
3. Write personal notes on each examination
paper encouraging students and motivate
them.
4. Be sure each item has face validity . Items
measure some important aspect of life as
perceived by the students.
Creation of Anxiety and Interference in
Learning
5. Avoid unannounced examination
6. Schedule personal conferences with students
as often as possible to reduce anxiety and
redirect learning.
7. Emphasize more on strengths, not on
deficiencies.
8. Do not emphasize competitive examinations
when some students are unable to compete.
9. Treat each students grades confidentially.
10.Allow students to choose among activities of
equal instructional value.
Permanent Categorization of Student
(Tracking)
Permanent Categorization of Student
(Tracking)
The notion that measurement instruments are
infallible and their performance is fixed and,
therefore, unchangeable, has had serious
consequences.
Penalizing Bright and Creative Students
Penalizing Bright and Creative Students
One of the most consistent criticisms of tests is
that they are insensitive to typical but
defensible responses. There some vague items,
but this is an exception rather than a rule.
Discrimination against Minority Students
Discrimination against Minority Students
Many minority students do not take tests because
thay have not learned the skills, knowledge,
and attitude required to succeed. In this case,
it is not reasonable to critisize tests. Rather, it
is the school which is it to blamed for failing to
teach students the needed skills, knowledge
and attitude.
Measurement of Limited and Superficial
Aspect of Behavior
Measurement of Limited and Superficial
Aspect of Behavior
A commonly recurring criticisms of tests is that
they cannot measure important human traits,
such as love or motivation.
Thank you

When students cheat on exams its because


our School System values grades more
than Students value learning.

~Tyson, N dG