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Agro climatic zones of

Agro
India climatic zones of
India
Z - 10
SOUTHERN PLATEAU AND HILLS

Landscape resources M.Arch


Submitted by
-Vimala Sundaram
Location

T. Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka


States under this region

T. Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka,


Typically semi and zone, Dry land Farming 81% Cropping
Intensity 11%
North Telengana

Northern Dry
Region of
Karnataka

South Telengana

Central Region
Karnataka and
South Region Rayalaseema
of Karnataka
and North
Region of Tamil
Nadu

Central Plateau of Tamil Nadu


Classification
by ICAR The
State
Agricultural
Universities
were advised
to divide each
state into
sub-
zones

Sub zone - Southern Plateau & Hills


CHARACTERIZATION
This zone comprising of 35 districts of the States of
Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu is large,
typically semi-arid with 74% of dryland farming. Only
about half the area is cultivated and the cropping
intensity is low at about 112%.

Rainfall :
The mean monthly temperature of July varies
between 25 C and 40 C, and the mean January
temperature is between 10 C and 20 C. Annual
rainfall is between 50 cm and 100 cm.
Crops :
It is an area of dry-zone agriculture where millets,
oilseeds, and pulses are grown. Coffee, tea,
cardamom and spices are grown along the hilly
slopes of Karnataka plateau.
Some of the area
under coarse
cereals may be
diverted to pulses
and oilseeds.
Horticulture, dairy
development and
poultry farming
should be
encouraged.

Farming:
Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu. Dry
farming is adopted and the cropping intensity is
TOPOGRAPHY OF THE ZONE :
This zone is a plateau in the peninsular
region and is completely land locked.
The plateau corresponding to 150160 m
contours covers about 52% of cultivated
area in Andhra Pradesh, 29% of area in
Tamil Nadu and most of Karnataka.
This zone is mostly a rainfed and drought
prone area and agriculture is the backbone
of the region.
SOIL TYPES :
In Tamil Nadu are red non-calcareous,
red calcareous and black soil.
In Andhra Pradesh, they are sandy
loam, red loam and black soils.
In Karnataka, the major soils are shallow
to deep black clay in the Northern
region, Red loam in Central region and
Red sandy
loam in the Southern region
CLIMATE AND ANNUAL RAINFALL:

Tamil Nadu
Annual rainfall varies from 5601080
mm and the Southwest monsoon, North
east monsoon, winter showers and
summer remains contribute 45, 37, 10 and
17% to the annual rainfall respectively,
though the
quantum and distribution may vary
Andhra Pradesh
(a) North Telangana : 9001,500 mm
mostly from South-west monsoon.
(b) Southern Telangana : South west
monsoon 700900 mm
(c) Scarce rainfall zone : 500750 mm
from both South of Rayalaseema west
and North east monsoons
Karnataka
The rainfall is less ranging from
456 mm
FISHERIES SECTOR :
Fishing activities in this zone are
confined to the rivers, tanks, lakes
and reservoirs. The total inland fish
production in entire State of Tamil
Nadu during 1998 99 was about
119,800 tonnes.
IRRIGATED AREA AND SOURCE OF
IRRIGATION :
In the north and north western Tamil
Nadu, 23% of the total cropped area is
irrigated. 7% of the irrigated area is by
canals and about 70% of the irrigated
area is by wells.
In Andhra Pradesh, 12.5, 12.0, 19.5 and
27.3% of the net area irrigated are by
canals, tank, tube well and open
wells respectively.
Most of the area in this region in
Karnataka is rainfed. The net area
irrigated is about 915%.
North Telengana

Northern Dry
Region of
Karnataka

South Telengana

Central Region
Karnataka and
South Region Rayalaseema
of Karnataka
and North
Region of Tamil
Nadu

Central Plateau of Tamil Nadu


Northern Dry Region of
Karnataka
Northern
Karnataka.
Bidar, Gulbarga, Bijapur,
Belgaum, Dharwad, Raichur
and Bellary.
The region receives less
than 700 mm of rains,
the climate is arid to
semi-arid and
the soil type is black and
red clayey.
Central Region of Karnataka and
Rayalaseema

four districts from karnataka :Chitradurga,


Tumkur, Bangalore .
Andhra PradeshChitoor, Cuddapah,
Kurnool and Anan-tapur.
700 mm of rains and
the climate is semi-arid.
The soil types are classified as red and
black sandy, clay and red sandy, red loamy,
mixed red and black.
North
Telengana
this sub-zone is
classified as forests
Rainfall is less than
1,000 mm per annum
the climate is semiarid.
The soil is red sandy.
This region includes
Adilabad, Nizamabad,
Karimnagar, Medak,
Warangal
and Khammam.

SouthTelengana

the districts of
Rangareddy,
Mahbubnagar,
Nalgonda and
Hyderabad

The climate is semi-


arid with
about 820 mm of
rainfall.
South Region of Karnataka and
North Region of Tamil Nadu

The sub-zone includes


the districts of Hassan,
Mandya
and Mysore in
Karnataka and
Dharmapuri and Salem in
Tamil Nadu.
average annual rainfall -
Karnataka - 720 mm,
Tamil Nadu - 860 mm.
climate is semi-arid and
the soil type is red
loamy and sandy loamy.
Central Plateau of Tamil Nadu

Periyar, Coimbatore,
Anna, Madurai,
Tiruchchirappalli and
Pudukkottai.
840 mm of rainfall
climate is semi-arid to
dry sub humid and
the soil type is
classified as red and black
deltaic alluvial
DETAILS OF SUB REGION :

SUB RAINF CLIMATE SOIL CROP


REGION ALL
(MM)
South 865 Semi Red Ragi jowar ,
region of arid loamy, groundnut,ri
Karnataka red sandy ce
Northern 769 Semi Medium, Jowar,cotton,
dry region arid & black, groundnut,b
of arid red ajra
Karnataka loamy
South 725 Semi Red Rice, jowar,
Telangana arid & sandy, maize.
arid medium Cotton,
to deep groundnut
black
North 1001 Semi Deep Rice,
Telangana arid(wet black, jowar,maize,
ter half) medium cotton,
black groundnut
Central 677 Semi Red Groundnut,r
region of arid loamy,me agi,jowar,ric
Karnataka dium e
and black,red
Rayalsema sandy,co
astal
alluvi
Central 841 Semi
Mixed Rice
plateau of arid to
red,and ,jowar,groun
tamil nadu dry sub
black red dnut,bajra
humid
loamy,
SHOWING RAINFALL, CIMATE AND
deltaic
alluvium
CROP AND SOIL DETAILS
RIVER SYSTEMS .
TheRiver
Kaveririses in the
Western Ghats, in the
Kodagudistrict of
Karnataka and flows
through the fertile
Mandya,Mysore,
Hassan regions
before entering Tamil
Nadu,
where it forms an extensive and fertile delta
on the east coast. The three major river
deltas of South India, the Kaveri, the Godavari
and the Krishna, are located along the Bay of
Bengal.
These areas constitute theRICE
BOWLS
ofisSouth
The river India for an extensive
the source
irrigation systemand for
hydroelectric power
Tributaries :
left - Hemavathi,shimsha,arkavathy
right - kabini,
bhavani,Noyyal,Amaravathi.
Cities :
Kushalnagar, mysore, Srirangapatna, T

narasipura,Erode,Karur,Trichirapalli,Thanjur
, kanakapura.

Source : thalai kaveri, kodugu, western


RIVER COURSE :
After the river leaves the Kodagu hills and
flows onto the Deccan plateau, it forms two
islands,Srirangapatna and Shivanasamudra.
At Shivanasamudra the river drops 98
metres (320ft), forming the famous
Shivanasamudra Falls.

Asia's firsthydroelectricplant (built in 1902)


was on the left falls and supplied power to the
city ofBangalore.
In its course through Karnataka, the channel
is interrupted by 12 "anekettu" (dams) for
the purpose of irrigation.
Three kilometers away from Srirangapatna,
the Kaveri is the basis for the
Ranganthittu Bird Sanctuary .
Srirangapatna is also anaqueduct .
It is said to be the only aqueduct where the
water from a river, dammed upstream, is
carried by the aqueduct over the very same
river few miles downstream .
The river enters Tamil Nadu through
Dharmapuri districtleading to the flat plains
where it meanders. It drops into the
Hogenakkal Fallsjust before it arrives in the
town ofHogenakkalin Tamil Nadu.
The water for the Kaveri is primarily
supplied bymonsoonrains.

Significance in Hinduism :

Kaveri is considered as sacred river next to


Ganges in INDIA.
Which has various temples surrounding its
river basin.
Even today Kaveri is its purist form.
The three major river islands at Kaveri have
a strongVaishnavaheritage, These three
temples are known as Adi Ranga, Madhya
Pls note :
Ranga, and Antya Ranga.
Aqueduct(bridge), a bridge that is
constructed to convey water over an obstacle,
such as a ravine or valley
AGRICULTURAL major crops :
Pearlmillet
Sugarcane

Paddy

Sunflower

Sorghum
Pigeonpea

Chickpea Cotton

Turmeric
Horticulture Fruits Crops :
Citrus (Acid lime; Kagazi lim
Grape (Variety: Thompson
Seedless, Sonaka ).

Groundnut

Banana

Pomegranate (Variety:
Ganesh, Kesar, Arakta )

Mango (Variety:
Baneshan, Totapuri,
Alphonso) Vegetables
Deccan thorn scrub forests :
Location : the arid portions of the Deccan
Plateau, extending across the Indian states of
Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh,
and Tamil Nadu.

Now most of these areas have been depleted


for grazing.
annual rainfall : is less than 750mm
Flora :
The plant species that dominate the veget
ation in these forests are Acacia species,,
Cordia myxa , phonix sylsvetris, Capparis
spp.,Prosopisspp.,Azadirachta indica

Balanites roxburghii Cappari sps.


Commonly vilvam

Azadirachta indica
Deccan Scrub Forests at Mastyagiri, telangana.

Over 80% of the original forest cover has


been cleared for agriculture, timber
harvesting, or cattle grazing, but large
blocks of forest can be found in
Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve.

national parks and bird sanctuaries:


Telanga as 3 national park .and 8 sanctuary.
There are 65 sacred groves Telangana.
Karnataka has five national parks And 27
wildlife sanctuaries.
Tamil nadu has various PROTECTED
AREAS. Hic serves as residents for various
resident and migratory animals and birds.
Threats and conservation :
The remaining deciduous woodland continues to be
cleared for grazing land, while the pasture that
has been created is itself threatened by
overgrazing and invasive weeds.
One large area of natural forest remains in
southern Andhra Pradesh and there eleven
protected areas but all of them small, the
largest being theRollapadu Bird Sanctuaryfor the
Some of India's famous protected areas
are found in South India. These include
Project Tigerreserves.
Periyar National Park,Kalakad - Mundanthurai
andNagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve.

Important bird sanctuaries including


Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary,Kumarakom
Bird Sanctuary,NelapattuandPulicat Sanctuary
are home to numerous migratory and local birds.

Other protected ecological sites :


thebackwaterslike thePulicat Lakein Andhra
Pradesh,Pitchavarumin Tamil Nadu
THANK YOU.