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Smaranda BICA, Radu RADOSLAV, Iasmina

NICOLAU
Politehnica University of Timisoara
Geographical position and
climate:
in open field, with small areas of forest
close to the Hungarian Puszta
on a territory resulting from drained swamp
the most frequent winds come from North West

(13%) and West (9,8%)


The summer storms, sometime reaching the

level 10 on Beaufort scale, come from West and


South West
Pollution level:
According to the World Health Organization,
Timisoara (and other cities in the Balkans), has
exceeded the European Unions stipulated limit of air
pollutants concentration in micrograms per cubic meter
especially the dangerous PM10 dust particles (so small
that they can get into the lungs, potentially causing
serious respiratory and cardiovascular health problems
Timisoara, along with other major cities in Romania,
was compelled in 2011 to come with strategies for a
cleaner air
local authorities contradict the international reports
reportin significant improv ements in the air quality
There are 7 monitoring stations in
the Timis County
Two stations are in suburban areas
(TM-3 and TM-6), and in the annual
report table they measure the air
quality on a radius ranging from 25
to 150 km. In this case the areas
surrounding the city of Timisoara are
taken into consideration
But the description of the types of stations
by RNMCA (Reeaua Naional de
Monitorizare a Calitii Aerului National
Net for the Monitoring of Air Quality) only
mentions a radius of 1-5 km, both for
urban and suburban stations. If so, large
areas in the county are never covered by
air quality monitoring.

Information is thus contradictory,


unconvincing and incomplete
Monitoring station Calea agului, Timioara
According to the Pollution Control Commission,
the causes of air pollution in Timioara are:
traffic
thermal plants emissions
construction and demolition waste management
the existence of disused plots between blocks
agricultural activities
lack of green belts.

The last two aspects represent the main subject


of this paper, as many of the other factors
already benefit from laws that regulate and
impose limits.
January to Decembre 2012 (TM3):
2.03; 2.72; 2.74; 1.83; 2.51; 2.03; 2.48; 3.1;
2.33; 2.41; 2.34; 2.51; 2.41
January to August 2013 (TM3):
2.55; 2.25; 2.45; 1.96; 2; 2.53; 2,74; 3
These values are higher then in the city from
January to August 2013 (TM1):
1; 1.5; 1.32; 2.06; 1.93; 2.05; 1.41; 1.41
The cause is agricultural dust, specific to
the county
The air in Timioara is affected by the
pollution coming from its surrounding
The benefits of vegetation are universally
known:
CO2 consumption and O2 emission
Air cooling in hot summer days
Thermal inertia in the cold season
Air moistening
Reduction wind speed
Prevention of weed seed spreading
Ecosystem containg natural pest enemies,
thus reducing the need for insecticides
10 to 20% higher agricultural production etc.
Harvest growth in non-irrigated crops, with
the usage of relatively young green belts, 6-
10 m high, depends also on the nature of
the climate, the agricultural technique used:
Wheat (gru) 11-143%
Corn cobs (porumb) 17-61%
Winter barley (orz) 19-27%
Spring barley 10-106%
Beets (sfecl) 12-45%
Sunflower (floarea soarelui) 5-28%
Vetch hay (mzriche) 21-47%
Protection against pollution, by resistent high
and medium forest vegetation (pyramidal &
black poplar, acacia, ash, sky, evergreens,
maple, mulberry etc.)
Protection against climatic factors, by wide (20-
40m) compact green belts.
Network form:
Classic: main shelterbetls each 600m
(perpendicular on prevailing wind direction)
secondary shelterbelts each 1200m
Polygonal: closed circuit
2-3% of a field is for shelterbelts, crops are
protected
8,596.70 km2 of which:
Plains 76%
Hills ~20.5%
Only ~3.5% mountain
Agriculture land covers 80.55 %
Forests cover only 12%:

2% on plains
18% on hills
80% on mountain area

Plains and hills are strongly deficient in


forests
Permanent moisture excess land areas: 160,14 km
Strongly eroded soil: 71.44 km
Landslide, subsidence, leakage land: 51.01 km
Landfills, quarries, borrow pits, ponds etc.: 33.56 k
Depth erosion (trenches, ravines, torrents): 11.8 km
Sandy soils exposed to wind or water erosion: 3 km
Areas with boulders, gravel, debris: 0.5 km

Total surface of land unsuitable for agricultural


use 331.45 km (33,145 ha): 3.81% of the County
could be forrested without loosing agricultural
surfaces
Green belts network developed along drainage
canals, perpendicular on the major winds
directions.
In order to meet the snow retention
requirements:
30 m (15 rows at 2 m), to accumulate the snow
14-16 m (7-8 rows spaced at 2 m) if designed
to partially accumulate the snow.

If placed along the roads (when the presence of


utilities doesnt require a 5-10 m withdrawal)
shelterbelts should be at a distance of 20-50m
of the road platform (TCLP).
The proposed 30.52 km long green belt network on
the north western part of the city would include:
crop protection belts
protection of the villages of Sclaz and Dumbrvia
a 6.8 km long green belt sector for the protection of
Timioara, continuing the existent belt.
Considering a 30 m width green belt for Timioara
on each side of the drainage canals, the surface
of green space directly related to the city would
bring ~41 ha of green space for the inhabitants.
This would add almost 8% to the amount of green
space belonging to the city, resulting ~18 m2/
inhabitant.
The importance of green belts is already well
known, but equally important is their location
depending on the particularity of the area of
intervention.
Timi Countys landscape has been shaped by
the drainage canals system which, due to
lack of funds and oversight has lost its
effectiveness.
The forest belt proposal along drainage canals
does not only induce a higher air quality, but
also brings back the benefits drainage
assures to the region, thus protecting crops
and preserving the areas landscape identity.
Thank you!