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Modeling Condition And Performance

Of Mining Equipment
Tad S. Golosinski and Hui Hu

Mining Engineering
University of
Missouri-Rolla

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Condition and Performance Monitoring
Systems

Machine health monitoring


Allows for quick diagnostics of problems
Payload and productivity
Provides management with machine and fleet
performance data
Warning system
Alerts operator of problems, reducing the risk
of catastrophic failure
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CATs VIMS
(Vital Information Management System)

Collects / processes Installed on


information on major Off-highway trucks
machine components 785, 789, 793, 797
Engine control Hydraulic shovels
Transmission/chassis 5130, 5230
control Wheel loaders
Braking control 994, 992G (optional)
Payload measurement
system

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Other, Similar Systems
Cummins
CENSE (Engine Module)
Euclid-Hitachi
Contronics & Haultronics
Komatsu
VHMS (Vehicle Health Monitoring System)
LeTourneau
LINCS (LeTourneau Integrated Network Control System)

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Round Mountain Gold Mine

Truck Fleet
17 CAT 785 (150t)
11 CAT 789B
(190t)
PSA
(Product Support
Agreement) CAT
dealer guarantees
88% availability

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VIMS in RMG Mine
Average availability is 93%
over 70,000 operating hours
VIMS used to help with
preventive maintenance
Diagnostics after engine failure
Haul road condition assessment
Other

Holmes Safety Association Bulletin 1998 6


CAT MineStar
CAT MineStar - Integrates
Machine Tracking System
(GPS)
Computer Aided Earthmoving System
(CAES)
Fleet scheduling System
(FleetCommander)
VIMS

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Cummins Mining Gateway

Modem

MiningGateway.co Database CENSE


m

Base
Cummins
Engine Station

RF Modem
Receiver
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VIMS Data & Information Flow
VIMS
Mine Legacy
Site 1 Databas
e

Mine Data Extract VIMS Data


Site Data Cleanup Warehouse
2 Data Load

Mine
Site
3 Informatio
n
Extraction

Information
Data Mining
Apply
Tools
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Earlier Research:
Data Mining of VIMS

Kaan Ataman tried modeling using:


Major Factor Analysis
Linear Regression Analysis
All this on datalogger data
Edwin Madiba tried modeling using:
Data formatting and transferring
VIMS events association
All this on datalogger and event data

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Research Objectives
Build the VIMS data warehouse to
facilitate the data mining
Develop the data mining application for
knowledge discovery
Build the predictive models for prediction
of equipment condition and performance

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Interactions

Data Data
Acquisition Preparation

Result
Interpretation Data Mining

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VIMS Features
Operator

Download

Sensors & Controls


Monitor & Store Maintenance
Event list
Event recorder
Data logger
Trends Wireless Link
Cumulative data
Histograms
Payloads Management
VIMS wireless

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Data Source

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VIMS Statistical Data Warehouse
1-3 minute interval statistical data
Minimum Regression Intercept
Maximum Regression Slope
Average
Data Range Regression SYY
Variance Standard Deviation

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VIMS Data Description
Six CAT 789B trucks
300 MB of VIMS data
79 High Engine Speed events

One-minute data
statistics

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SPRINT -A Decision Tree Algorithm
IBM Almaden Research Center

GINI index for the split point

gini ( s ) 1 p 2
j

n1 n2
ginisplit ( s ) gini ( s1 ) gini ( s2 )
n n
Strictly binary tree
Built-in v-fold cross validation

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VIMS EVENT PREDICTION

High Engine
Normal Engine Normal Engine
Speed
Speed Speed
Snapshot
VIMS
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 0 0 0 0
Data
High Eng

Event_ID 767_1 767_2

Predicte Other Other Eng_1 Eng_2 Other Other


d Label

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One-Minute
decision tree 20
Decision Tree: Training on One-Minute Data
Total Errors = 120 (6.734%)

Predicted Class --> | Other | Eng1 | Eng3 | Eng2 | Eng4 | Eng6 | Eng5 |
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Other | 1331 | 18 | 9| 5| 16 | 6| 1|
total = 1386
Eng1 | 0| 62 | 1| 3| 0| 0| 0|
total = 66
Eng3 | 0| 11 | 51 | 2| 2| 1| 0|
total = 67
Eng2 | 0| 12 | 8| 38 | 7| 0| 0|
total = 65
Eng4 | 0| 3| 7| 2| 55 | 0| 1|
total = 68
Eng6 | 0| 0| 0| 1| 0| 61 | 4|
total = 66
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Eng5 | 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 64 |
Decision Tree: Test#1 on One-Minute Data
Total Errors = 24 (24%)

Predicted Class --> | Other | Eng1 | Eng3 | Eng2 | Eng4 | Eng6 | Eng5 |

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Other | 59 | 3| 0| 2| 3| 0| 1|
total = 68
Eng1 | 4| 1| 0| 1| 0| 0| 0|
total = 6
Eng3 | 0| 3| 1| 0| 1| 0| 0|
total = 5
Eng2 | 1| 1| 1| 1| 0| 0| 0 |
total = 4
Eng4 | 1| 1| 0| 1| 1| 0| 0|
total = 4
Eng6 | 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 7| 0|
total = 7
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Eng5 | 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 6|
Decision Tree: Test#2 on One-Minute Data
Total Errors = 35 (17.86%)

Predicted Class --> | Other | Eng1 | Eng3 | Eng2 | Eng4 | Eng6 | Eng5 |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Other | 141 | 9| 2| 4| 4| 0| 0 | total
= 160
Eng1 | 2| 2| 1| 1| 0| 0| 0| total
=6
Eng3 | 2| 1| 2| 0| 1| 0| 0| total
=6
Eng2 | 2| 1| 2| 1| 0| 0| 0|
total = 6
Eng4 | 1| 0| 1| 1| 3| 0| 0|
total = 6
Eng6 | 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 6| 0|
total = 6
Eng5 | 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0 | 23 6 |
total = 6
Two-Minute
decision tree
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Decision Tree
Training on Two-Minute Data Sets

Total Errors = 51 (5.743%)

Predicted Class --> | OTHER | ENG1 | ENG2 | ENG3 |


---------------------------------------------------------------------
OTHER | 657 | 6| 19 | 3| total =
685
ENG1 | 0| 62 | 10 | 0| total =
72
ENG2 | 0| 13 | 54 | 0| total =
67
ENG3 | 0| 0| 0| 64 | total =
64
--------------------------------------------------------------------- 25
Decision Tree
Test #1 on Two-Minute Data

Total Errors = 14 (29.79%)

Predicted Class --> | OTHER | ENG1 | ENG2 | ENG3 |


---------------------------------------------------------------------
OTHER | 28 | 5| 4| 1|
total = 38
ENG1 | 1| 0| 0| 0|
total = 1
ENG2 | 2| 1| 1| 0|
total = 4
ENG3 | 0| 0| 0| 4|
total = 4
---------------------------------------------------------------------
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Decision Tree
Test #2 on Two-Minute Data

Total Errors = 15 (15.31%)

Predicted Class --> | OTHER | ENG1 | ENG2 | ENG3 |


---------------------------------------------------------------------
OTHER | 71 | 8| 1| 0| total
= 80
ENG1 | 3| 3| 0| 0|
total = 6
ENG2 | 0| 3| 3| 0|
total = 6
ENG3 | 0| 0| 0| 6|
total = 6
---------------------------------------------------------------------
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Three-Minute
decision tree
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Decision Tree
Training on Three-Minute Data

Total Errors = 28 (4.878%)

Predicted Class --> | OTHER | ENG1 | ENG2 |


----------------------------------------------------
OTHER | 411 | 23 | 4|
total = 438
ENG1 | 1| 65 | 0|
total = 66
ENG2 | 0| 0| 70 |
total = 70
----------------------------------------------------
412 | 88 | 74 |
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total = 574
Decision Tree
Test #1 on Three-Minute Data

Total Errors = 12 (19.05%)

Predicted Class --> | OTHER | ENG1 | ENG2 |


----------------------------------------------------
OTHER | 42 | 9| 0| total
= 51
ENG1 | 3| 5| 0| total
=8
ENG2 | 0| 0| 4| total
=4
----------------------------------------------------
45 | 14 | 4
30|
Decision Tree
Test #2 on Three-Minute Data

Total Errors = 9 (14.06%)

Predicted Class --> | OTHER | ENG1 | ENG2 |


----------------------------------------------------
OTHER | 47 | 5| 0| total
= 52
ENG1 | 4| 2| 0|
total = 6
ENG2 | 0| 0| 6|
total = 6
----------------------------------------------------
51 | 7| 316 |
total = 64
Decision Tree Summary
One-Minute model needs more complex tree
structure
One-Minute model gives low accuracy of
predictions
Three-Minute decision tree model gives
reasonable accuracy of predictions
Based on test #1 &#2
Other - 13% error rate
Eng1 - 50% error rate
Eng2 0 error rate
Other approach?

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Backpropagation
A Neural Network Classification Algorithm

Node
Node Detail

x1
w1
w2
x2 f(z)
w3
x3
z = iwixi
Input Hidden Out
Layer
Some choices for F(z):
Characteristic: Each output f(z) = 1 / [1+e-z] (sigmoid)
corresponds to a possible classification. f(z) = (1-e-2z) / (1+e-2z) (tanh)

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Minimize the Sum of Squares
SSQ Error Function

1 m
E ( t k yk )2
2 k 1
1 m
min E ( t k yk ) 2
2 k 1

yk (output) is a function of
the weights wj,k. Freeman & Skapura, Neural Networks,
Addison Wesley, 1992
tk is the true value. In the graph:

Ep is the sum of
E squares error
EW j ,k and solve EW j ,k 0 for Wj,k
W j ,k Ep is the gradient,
(direction of maximum
function increase)

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More
Neural Network Modeling Results
Three-Minute training set

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Neural Network Modeling Result
Three-Minute set: test #1 and #2
Test #1

Test #2

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NN Summary
Insufficient
data for one-minute and two-
minute prediction models
Three-minute network shows better
performance than the decision tree
model:
Other - 17% error rate
Eng1 - 28% error rate
Eng2 - 20% error rate

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Conclusions
Predictivemodel can be built
Neural Network model is more accurate
than the Decision Tree one
Based on all data
Overall accuracy is not sufficient for
practical applications
More data is needed to train and test the
models

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References
Failure Pattern Recognition of a Mining
Truck with a Decision Tree Algorithm
Tad Golosinski & Hui Hu, Mineral Resources
Engineering, 2002 (?)

Intelligent Miner-Data Mining Application for


Modeling VIMS Condition Monitoring Data
Tad Golosinski and Hui Hu, ANNIE, 2001, St. Louis

Data Mining VIMS Data for Information on


Truck Condition
Tad Golosinski and Hui Hu, APCOM 2001, Beijing, P.R.
China

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