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A CRITICAL ANALYSIS

ON
TAP HOLE
by
ABHIK CHAKRABORTY 1
LIFE OF B/F
DEPENDS LARGELY ON -

EROSION OF REFRACTORY LINING OF THE HEARTH WALL

EROSION OF HEARTH TAKES PLACE BECAUSE OF

METAL FLOW IN THE HEARTH ESPECIALLY THE EXTENT OF


CIRCUMFERENTIAL FLOW NEAR THE HEARTH WALL REGION

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ROLE OF FREE SPACE IN THE
HEARTH
The free space is defined as a region developed especially in the
circumferential region in the hearth that is free from coke column
penetrating into the hearth.

The free space causes the circumferential flow in the hearth, and
the intensity of the flow is affected by the taphole length.

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TAPHOLE LENGTH
Vs
LIFE OF B/F

A Longer taphole reduces the intensity of metal flow in the


circumferential region, and reduces the wall lining erosion.

A shorter taphole enhances the circumferential flow and


increases the wall lining erosion.

The control of the taphole length is regarded as one of the


indispensable measures to achieve a longer life of blast
furnace.

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AROUND THE TAPHOLE REGION
A large sintered mass mainly
consisted of mud injected into the
hearth and also the taphole itself
running through the mudmass.

The mud mass can be divided by


taphole level into two parts, the
upper part and the lower part.

On the upper part of the mudmass,


there exist many lumps of mud of
sizes from 20 to 40 cm.

The bottom of the lower part reaches


the initial level of the hearth bottom
before the blowing-in.
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FORCES ON COKE COLUMN

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HEARTH DIMENSIONS
F/C F/C F/C
1,2,3 4,5,6 7
Dh
(m) 7.2 9.1 9.75

h1
(m) 5.56

h2
(m) 3.2 3.2 3.8

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DIMENSIONS AROUND
TAPHOLE
The raceway depth L1 depends on

1. Tuyere diameter,
2. Blast velocity,
3. Diameter of coke in the raceway

Control for the raceway depth is done by

1. Plugging the tuyeres or


2. Reducing the inner diameter of the
tuyeres
3. Mechanically reducing the blast volume of
the tuyeres concerned

The taphole length L3+L4

L2 + L4 referred as in-hearth taphole


length

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Prerequisites to increase the
TAPHOLE LENGTH

(a) Holding space


(b) Enough sintering time, and
(c) Physical characteristics of the
mud revealed during and after
heating and/or sintering.

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The holding space can be secured if
the bottom of the coke column is
well below the taphole level.

By the decrease in the raceway


depth, the area of the central region
of the coke column where the coke
column reaches deeper in the iron
bath approaches the hearth wall.

This leads to a good contact


between the coke column and the
mudmass resulting in securing the
holding space.

The bottom boundary of the coke


column can move either outward
inward according to the change in
the raceway depth.

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The sintering time of the injected mud in the holding
space depends on the mode of tapping operation.

For a successive tapping, sintering time is around 30-90 min

for an alternate tapping, around 3-5 h.

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Physical characteristics of the mud during and after
heating and/or sintering
After being injected into the hearth,
1. The mud under-goes rapid heating due to the contact with
high temperature liquids followed by crack formation
inside mud.
2. An excessive crack formation results in a fragile sintered
structure of the mud.
3. A rapid evolution large amount of volatile matter is a
cause of the bursting the mud into pieces.
Therefore, a higher stability against crack formation and
bursting during rapid heating is desirable, other properties
required are :
Physical and/or chemical adhesion of mud to the coke
particles
Less shrinkage mud during sintering for a stable sintered
structure with less cracks. 12
SHORT TAP HOLE
Insufficient amount of
mud injection into the
tap hole

Erosion of the
sintered structure of
the tap hole during a
long period

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VARIABLES
SINGLE TAP HOLE Vs DOUBLE TAP HOLE
When only one taphole is available, the following effects occur:

1. Production rate will be reduced.

2. To allow taphole clay to cure properly, the time between casts must be
extended.

3. Operations personnel have less time to perform tasks in between


casts.

4. Improperly cured taphole clay can result in pollution incidents.

5. In case of failure of tapping equipment, the furnace must be shut


down.

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SLAG RATIO
Timing for opening depends
on the volume of the hearth
Taphole length is increased by
decreasing the slag-layer
height in the hearth

Operating guidelines:
1. The taphole is opened when
65 percent of the hearth
capacity is filled.
2. The casting rate is about 1.4
times the instantaneous
production rate.
3. The plug-to-slag time is
critical and must be less than
100 minutes 15
.

HOT METAL TEMPERATURE

Keeping temperatures around the tap hole low and


within acceptable ranges is critical to the campaign
life of the tap hole and surrounding refractory.

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REQUIRED PROPERTIES FOR
MUDGUN CLAY

High mechanical strength at high temperatures


Small expansion rate
High thermal conductivity
High spalling resistance
Virtually no re-heat shrinkage
High corrosion resistance against wide range of metal
chemistry
High abrasion resistance
High oxidation resistance

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PERFORMANCE
EVALUATION CRITERIA
GOOD DRILLABILITY
+2m in 5 minutes
CONSISTENT LENGTH +2m
NO SPITTING
NO EROSION OF T/H DURING
TAPPING
NO BLAST REDUCTION / DELAY
DUE TO OPENING OF TAPPING
BECAUSE OF BAD CLAY
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M/G CLAY FROM POLAND
PROPERTIES: CHEMICAL ANALYSIS:
SiO2 65-67[%]
Al2O3 8 - 10-[%]
Total carbon content 19 21 [%] Fe2O3 < 1-[%]
Density 2.15 2.2 Na2O + K2O < 0.5-[%]
[g/cm3]
Ignition loss 16 20 [%]
Compressive strength
after drying at 400oC/0.5h 48
[MPa] Mass expiration date
Working temperature 1650 [oC] (below 25 oC in hermetic
package)
Content C + SiC 18 20 [%]
Graining 0 3 [mm] 3 months

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PROPERTIES OF DIFFERENT
M/G CLAYS
BSP BRL BRL BRP
RESIN
APPARENT
POROSITY
34.2 30.8 31.0 25.5
(44% max)
BULK DENSITY
(1.2 min)
1.44 1.82 1.83 2.02
CCS
(52 kg/cm2)
NA NA NA NA
VM
(9 -19%)
13 10 11 9
WA
(%)
6.4 16 8.8 17
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MUD GUN AUTOMATION
The existing mudguns to be retrofitted with an
automated temperature control system
1. The goal of this system is to maintain the clay temperature at 50C
2. When the gun is at the home position, the system will be heating the barrel and
nozzle; and when the gun is over the trough, the system will be cooling the
barrel and nozzle.
3. The system will help promote consistent plugs and contribute to the stability of
the taphole.
Linear transducers were installed
on the ram and swing cylinders

Nitrided mudgun barrels machined to specifications to


prevent wear
Properly sized nozzles with ceramic liners to reduce clay
leakage 21
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DRILL MACHINE
AUTOMATION
A resolver to be installed on the drill,
to know accurate drill carriage position.
D/M with a nitrogen water mist drilling system .
A mixture of high-pressure nitrogen mixed with water will be
injected through the hollow center of the drill rod to maintain
the integrity of the drill bit during drilling.

ADVANTAGES With this system ,


The mush-rooming effect of the drill bit will be reduced,
The bit will retain its sharp cutting edge and the integrity of the
drill rod will be better maintained.
Drilling time will be reduced,
The consumable costs will be reduced,
The casting delays will be greatly reduced, and
The overall shape and integrity of the taphole will be improved .

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HAPPY TAPPING

THANK YOU

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