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CONNECTORS

OPPOSITION,
ADDITION,
CAUSE / EFFECT,
CONDITION
OPPOSITION
But
Although, despite the fact that
However, nevertheless
Despite, in spite of
Nonetheless.

I broke my leg. However, I still feel great.


I broke my leg. Nevertheless, I feel great.
I broke my leg. Nonetheless, I feel great.
Although I broke my leg, I feel great.
Even though I broke my leg, I feel great.
Though I broke my leg, I feel great.
I feel great despite the fact that I broke my leg.
I feel great in spite of the fact that I broke my leg.
ADDITION (I)
And
In addition, additionally, furthermore, moreover, also
Not only...but also
In addition to, along with, as well as

The library on 5th Avenue in New York City is one of the best
places
to do research. In addition, it has hundreds of the most
respected
magazines and journals in the world

The library on 5th Avenue in New York City is one of the best
places
to do research. Moreover, it has hundreds of the most respected
Magazines and journals in the world.
ADDITION (II)
The library on 5th Avenue in New York City is one of the
best
places to do research. Furthermore, it has hundreds of
the
most respected magazines and journals in the world.

The library on 5th Avenue in New York City is one of the best
places to do research. It also has hundreds of the most respected
magazines and journals in the world.

The library on 5th Avenue in New York City is one of the best
places to do research. It has hundreds of the most respected
magazines and journals in the world as well.
ADDITION (III)
The library on 5th Avenue in New York City is one of the best
places to do research. It has hundreds of the most respected
magazines and journals in the world, too.

The library on 5th Avenue in New York City is one of the


best
places to do research. Additionally, it has hundreds of
the
most respected magazines and journals in the world.

The library on 5th Avenue in New York City is one of the best places t o
do research, and it has hundreds of the most
respected magazines and journals in the world.
ADDITION (IV)

The library on 5th Avenue in New York City is not only one
of the best places to do research but also has hundreds of the most
respected magazines and journals in the world.

The library on 5th Avenue in New York City is one of the best places to
do research. Besides that, it has hundreds of the most respected
magazines and journals in the world.
CAUSE/EFFECT

For (cause), so (effect)


Because, since
Therefore, as a result, consequently
Because of, due to, as a result of
CONDITION

If, unless, only if, even if


Otherwise
SOME PRACTICE ON
ADDITION
1- Rewrite the following sentences with the connectors and words we learned in this
lesson.
My professor is an extremely fascinating person. She tells some of the most interesting
stories I have ever heard.

1.) Additionally,
____________________________________________________

2.) In addition,
____________________________________________________

3.) Too
____________________________________________________

4.) Also
____________________________________________________

5.) Furthermore,
____________________________________________________
SOME PRACTICE (II)
6.) Besides that,
____________________________________________________

7.) And
____________________________________________________

8.) Moreover,
____________________________________________________

9.) As well
____________________________________________________

10.) Not only...but also


____________________________________________________
SOME PRACTICE ON
OPPOSITION.
For each of the following, put the 2 sentences together by using
the
word or phrase in the parentheses. You may have to change
some
words.

1.I fell down the stairs. I am okay. (however)


2.In the early 1900's, the buffalo were almost extinct. The buffalo
population is now thriving. (in spite of)
3.Robin worked 14 hours a day for that company. She was fired.
(nevertheless)
4. The king travelled all over the country greeting everyone he met.
The citizens hated him. (despite the fact that)
5.I worked on my car all day. It doesn't run. (even though)
SOME PRACTICE II
6. Beth studied French since she was in high school. She can't speak
a word of French. (although)

7. Johnny sent his girlfriend a dozen roses and a diamond ring. She
doesn't want to marry him. (nonetheless)

8. Bobby and Susan spent the whole summer travelling in Europe.


They didn't spend a lot of money. (in spite of the fact that)

9. I jumped out of an airplane, and the parachute didn't open. I


didn't even break a bone. (though)

10. I cut my finger very deeply. I didn't need any stitches. (despite)
Parallel structures
There are a number of situations which
require you to use parallel structure.They
are:
- Both X and Y . . .
- Not X but Y
- Not only X but also Y . . .
- Neither X nor Y . . .
- Either X or Y . . .
Remember the rule of parallel
structure: the
words in the list must be the same
grammatical form. In this situation,
the X
and Y must be the same grammatical
form.
INCORRECT CORRECT
In counselling, I In counselling, I
think both talking think both talking
and to listen are and listening are
important. important.
We are not for war We are not for
war but for When using these constructions, the
but peace
X
peace.
and Y must be the same grammatical
This car is not only This car is not only
fast but also it is forms: both nouns, both infinitives,
fast but also safe. both
safe to drive.
prepositional phrases, both gerunds,
Either you can join You can join or
the army or the either the army or
both clauses.
navy.
the navy.
Either you must You must either
stay home or go stay home or go
with us. with us.
Read the following sentences. If the sentence is
correct, don't
change anything. If the sentence is incorrect, find the
parallel
structure problem and fix it.

1.The factory workers were ready, able, and were quite


determined to do a great job.

2.The computer network is safer, stronger, and more secure.

3.We cannot be worried or terrified of difficulties in life.

4.The actor taught his student how to read, how to stand,


how to cry, and to talk with fans.

5.The requirements for a chemistry degree are not as strict


as a medical degree.
6.Either you can join the army or the navy.
7.The reorganization of the company is neither
simple nor it will be cheap.
8.When I was in high school, I learned piano and
how to play the guitar.
9.Fred supports the idea because, first, its
simplicity; second, it is unique.
10.They are either our friends or they are not.
ANSWERS
The factory workers were ready, able, and determined to do a great job.
We cannot be worried about or terrified of the difficulties in life.

The actor taught his student how to read, how to stand, how to cry, and how to
talk with fans.

The requirements for a chemistry degree are not as strict as the


requirements
for a medical degree.

You can join either the army or the navy.

When I was in high school, I learned how to play the piano and guitar.

Fred supports the idea because, first, it is simple; second, it is unique.

They are either our friends or our enemies.