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Fuel systems

(Carburetor)
Function of the carburetor

To meter the liquid fuel as required by the engine


Atomize the fuel and mix it with the air stream
.Enable the engine to run smoothly in all engine operating conditions
Simple Carburetor
Aair

Pa = P1

P = P1 P2 P2

Afuel
* Changing
Throttle opening
Aair/Afuel !!
Simple Carburetor problems

Idling circuit
Acceleration (Response time)
Chock (Cold starting)
Carburetor Idle circuit and mix
adjustment
Variable Jet Carburetor
Intake System of a Gasoline Internal
Combustion Engine with a Two-Barrel
Carburetor
Assumptions:
Incompressible flow
No Heat transfer
Frictionless flow
No external work
Distance between venture inlet and
throat is negligible

1 2 3
Calculation of F/A ratio
Air
A. For air
Apply Bernoulli equation between 1 and 2

P1 V12 P2 V22 1 2 3
gZ1 gZ 2
1 2 2 2 Fuel
1 2 a
P1 P2 V22 V12 2 Pa
V22 V12 ..............(1)
a 2 a
Apply continuity equation
1 2 3
A2
1 A1 V1 2 A2 V2 V1 V2 ..............( 2)
Air
A1
From 2 in 1

2Pa A
2
2Pa A
2

V22 V22 2 V22 1 2
a A1 a A1
1 2 3
2Pa
a
V2 2
Fuel
A2
1
A1
2
A2
Where 1 approuch factor
A1
If A1>>> A2

A
2

1 2 1
A1
2Pa 1 2 3
V2
a
Air

Actual velocity:
If Ca = flow coefficient
Ca = Va)act / Va)th
Ca < 1 V2)act < V2)th 1 2 3
Mass flow rate:
Fuel
2Pa
m a Ca A2 V2 a Ca a
a
Ca a 2Pa a
Ca a Pa 2 a
B. For Fuel
Similarly as air

f Cf f
m Pf 2f
1 2 3

Air

A m
a Ca Aa a Pa

F m
f C A Pf
f f f
1 2 3

Fuel