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PRESENTED

BY:
FAZILA
ORGANIC AND KANWAL
INORGANIC CHEMISTRY MEMOONA
MEMON
NIMRA
CHEMISTRY

There are two


main classes of
compounds in
chemistry:
Organic Chemistry
OLD DEFINITIONS
More than a century ago all the substances then known were
classified on the basis of source from which they were derived.
Inorganic compounds:
The compounds which were obtained from
mineral origins were called inorganic
compounds.
For example
otable salt.
omarble.
ocarbon di oxide.
OLD DEFINITIONS
Organic compounds:
The compounds which were obtained from
vegetables animal or any other living origins
were called organic compounds.
Example:
oAcetic Acid from vinegar.
oAlcohol from wine.
oCitric Acid from lemon.

.
OLD DEFINITIONS
VITAL FORCE THEORY: It was
assumed that the organic compounds
could be produced only by living matter
for living matter was thought to be
posses VITAL FORCE.
As long as this concept prevailed no
efforts was made to produce organic
compounds in the laboratory, and the
VITAL FORCE THEORY long went
unchallenged.
OLD DEFINITIONS
In 1828, a German chemist named
Friedrich Whler (18001882)
proved vitalism wrong.
Whler heated ammonium cyanate
(an inorganic compound) and
formed urea (an organic compound).
Whlers experiment was a crucial
step in opening all of life to scientific
investigation.
Whler showed that the compounds
that compose living organisms follow
scientific laws and can be studied
and understood.
OLD DEFINITIONS
But this synthesis did not immediately
break the old concept. However, in the
following years synthesis of many organic
compounds were achieved like (acetic acid).
Thus by 1850, the VITAL FORCE THEORY
was finally discard.
Hence, the emphasis was shifted from origin
to composition and organic compounds
came to be considered as those containing
carbon.
COMPARISON OF PROPERTIES

ORGANIC INORGANIC
COMPOUNDS COMPOUNDS
Low melting points High melting points
Low boiling points High boiling points
Low solubility in High solubility in
water; high solubility water; Low solubility
in non polar solvents in non polar solvents
Flammable Nonflammable
Non conductor of conductor of
electricity electricity
Chemical reactions Chemical reactions
MODERN DEFINITION OF
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
In organic chemistry we study organic
compounds and Organic compounds are
considered which contains carbons.
Note: Carbon Dioxide , Carbon Monoxide ,
Metal Carbonates and metal cyanides are
not classified as Organic Compounds.
So Why CARBON SUCH A SPECIAL
ELEMENT..??
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
We Know That:
All life as we
know it is
made up of
organic
compounds.
ORGANIC
CHEMISTRY
Virtually every part
of our bodies is
made with large
amounts of
CARBON.
ORGANIC
CHEMISTRY
Carbon is
the second
most
abundant
element in
our body.
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
The sweet smell of
jasmine is produced by
benzyl acetate, an
organic compound.
When you smell the
jasmine scent, benzyl
acetate molecules
emitted from the flower
bind with molecular
receptors in your nose,
triggering a nerve signal
to your brain.
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

In other words we can say that most


of the compounds formed by living
cells (plants or animals) contains
carbon.
Hence, organic compounds are
considered those containing carbon.
But Why We study Organic Compounds
Separately....??
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
There are three main
causes:
Large Number Of
Compounds: The number of
compounds containing
carbon is greater than the
number of compounds of all
the rest of the elements in
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

UNIQUE CHEMICAL AND


PHYSICAL PROPERTIES: there
are marked difference
between the composition,
structure and properties
of organic and inorganic
compounds
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
UNIQUE CHARACTER OF CARBON: A second
reason is Catenation property of carbon,
more than any other element, can bond to
itself to form chain, branched, and ring
structures.
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Hence, Chemists
realized that organic
Chemistry should be studied
as a separate discipline.
INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
INTRODUCTION: It is the branch of chemistry
that deals with the chemistry of all elements
and their compounds except carbon.
Few that do contains carbon.
Inorganic chemistry is also closely related
to other disciplines such as materials
sciences, physical chemistry,
thermodynamics, earth sciences,
mineralogy, crystallography, spectroscopy
etc.
INORGANIC Metals/Ma
CHEMISTRY erials
chemistry

Involve
INORGANIC
s all
elemen
ts

Chemical
Reaction
s
INORGANIC
CHEMISTRY
Inorganic chemistry, on

the other hand, is the


opposite. It is the study of the
formation, synthesis, and
properties of compounds that
do not contain carbon-
hydrogen bonds.
INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
However,
the boundary between organic and inorganic
compounds is not always well defined. For example, oxalic acid,
H2C2O4, is a compound formed in plants, and it is generally
considered an organic acid, but it does not contain any C-H
bond.
Inorganic compounds that contain Carbon:
Oxides of carbon. (CO2 and CO)
Any compound with Carbonate ion. () i.e. KNa
Any compound with contain just metal and carbon i.e. CaC 2 and
SiC
HCN, Or a compound with a metal and CN group i.e. NaCN, KCN.
Note: when the CN group appears with other carbon atom then
compound is Organic.
INORGANIC
CHEMISTRY
There are
around
100,000 known
inorganic
compounds
INORGANIC
CHEMISTRY
Examples of inorganic
compounds include:
Sodium chloride (NaCl): used as
table salt
Silicon dioxide (SiO2): used in
computer chips and solar cells
Sapphire (Al2O3): a well-known
gemstone
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4): a