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Apparel standards ,

specifications & quality


control
Quality Definitions
Quality---Definition
Quality is essential character
,nature , an ingredient or
distinguishing attribute, property, a
character trait, superiority of kind,
degree of grade or excellence.
--Webster II
,University dictionary,
Definition
Quality can also mean
The ability to exceed a customers

expectations while maintaining a cost


competitive market position.
--- Johan Rabbitt of the
Foxboro company
Definition
Quality can be product based , user based,
manufacturing based or value based.
----Garvin
1. Product basedquality as a precise &
measurable variable.
2. User based quality is whatever the
customer says or wants( meeting
customers requirement & expectations.
3. Manufacture basedquality means
meeting specifications, conformance to
requirement.
4. Value basedquality takes into
consideration cost or price of the product
Garvin ---Eight dimensions
of quality.
1. Performance--primary operating characteristic of a product
2. FeaturesProducts basic functions.
3. Reliabilityproducts failure within a specified period of
time
4. Conformanceproducts design & operating characteristics
meet pre- established standard.
5. Durabilitylength of time a product will last or product life
6. ServiceabilitySpeed, courtesy, competence & ease of
repair of a production.
7. Aestheticsproduct looks ,feels, sounds,tastes,or smells
8. Perceived qualityProduct based on image, advertising &
brand reputation
Dr. Joseph M .Juran
Quality can be defined in terms of fitness
for use.
Applied to garments
1. It must be free from defects (material
,assembly & Finish defects)
2. It must fit properly for the labeled size.
3. It must perform satisfactorily in normal
use, (normal laundering-fabric must not
tear or color loss)
Crosby's response to the quality crisis was
the principle of "doing it right the first
time" (DIRFT). He would also include four
major principles:
the definition of quality is conformance to

requirements
the system of quality is prevention
the performance standard is zero defects
the measurement of quality is the price of

non-conformance
Quality Related Terms
Quality Management
Quality Systems
Quality Plan

Quality Policy
Quality assurance
Quality Control

Statistical quality control


Inspection
Testing
Factors That Influences
Consumers Perception of
Quality
1. Price
2. Technology
3. Psychology
4. Time Orientation
5. Contractual
6. Ethical
Standards
A Standard can be defined as
1. Something that is established by authority
, custom or general consent as a model or
example to be followed.
2. Established for use as a rule or basis of
comparison in measuring or judging
capacity, quantity, content, extent, value,
quality, etc
3. The type, model, or generally accepted to
criterion set for usage or practice,
4. A level of excellence, attainment, etc
regarded as a measure of adequacy.
Standards
Standards are documented agreements
containing technical specifications or other
precise criteria to be used consistently as
rules, guidelines or definitions of
characteristics, to ensure that materials,
products, processes & services are FIT FOR
THE PURPOSE,
---ISO
(International Organization for
Standardization)
Benefits / importance of
standard
1. Standard facilitate communication &
prevent misunderstanding
2. Standards make parts interchangeability
possible & as a result mass production is
possible.
3. Standards can be used in marketing
strategy to promote purchase of the
products that meet nationally recognized
requirement, especially, when
conformance is backed by a certification
program.
4. Standards reduce cost & save money.
Various textiles & apparel standards developing organization.

ISO: International Organization for


Standardization.
BSI: British Standards Institute
** Bureau of Indian standards (BSI) **

AATCC: American Association of Textile Chemists and


Colorists
ASTM: American Society of Testing and Materials
ASQC: American Society for Quality Control
ASQ: American Society for Quality
ANSI: American national standard institute

AAFA: American Apparel & Footwear Association


AAMA :-- American Apparel Manufacturers Association.
Other International standards
organisations
NIST: National institute of standards &
technology.
ATMI: American textile manufactures

institute, Inc
IFAI: Industrial fabrics association

international.
IFI: International Fabricare Institute.
JISC: Japanese Industrial Standard

Committee.
SCC: Standards Council of Canada.
SNZ: Standards New Zealand.
CEN: European Committee for
ASTM develops six Types of
Standards
1. Test methods
2. Specifications
3. Practices
4. Terminology
5. Guides
6. Classifications
Levels of standards
Company standards
Industry standards
Government standards
Full consensus standards.

Voluntary standards
Mandatory standards
International standard
Specification
Specification can be defined as
The act of specifying, detailed mention or

definition, a detailed description of the parts


of a whole; statement or enumeration of
particulars as to required size, quality,
performance , terms , etc
Specification
A specification , or spec , is a precise
statement of a set of requirements to be
satisfied by a material, product, system , or
service that indicates the procedures for
determining wheatear each of the
requirements is satisfied.

Specifications describes requirements, in


other words , specific terms & numerical
values with measurement units are listed so
that it is clear what issues are considered
important.
Types of Specifications
Open specification
Closed specification
Minimum
A minimum is the least or lowest acceptable
value for any given parameter or
dimension.

Establishing minimum can be a very difficult


task because it is these values that
encompass performance, appearance, &
quality of the product.
Tolerance
A tolerance describes the range of acceptable values,
or
In other words it describes allowable deviations from
specified values.
Tolerances may be listed in several ways. As a range

from X to Y, Or as a plus or minus value listed as


being acceptable,

Example Fabric weight


As a range 6 to 7oz/sq yd
Or as a plus or minus value 6.5oz/sq yd +/- .05oz/sq yd
Tolerance
Maximum tolerance
Minimum tolerance
Zero tolerance
Grade
Grade is defined as a category or rank
indicator of the totality of feature &
characteristics of a product or service
intended for the same functional use or
purpose, oriented at a specified cost related
consumer/user market.
Grade reflects that additional features &

characteristics may be desirable, usually for


added cost, & that a different version of the
product or service is thus defined