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ENERGY OPTIMIZATION

An approach to Total Energy


Management
Necessity of Total Energy Management:

Maximizing the profits

To sustain in competitive market

Discharging Social Obligation in minimizing


Global Warming
The Total Energy Management has mainly two approaches:

Energy Conservation

Energy Optimisation
Monthly Engineering Reports & Utilities P&Ls show
the reduction in costs through controlled
Usage. Energy Conservation

The present utilities costs are ranging in between 4 % to 36 % of Total


Sales .
Be these costs are 4 % or 36 %...........The questions are

Are the utilities cost are reasonable in absolute term? ....Dont

Know

Are the conventional methods of energy conservation adequate ?....

NO
Whether all facilities are consuming optimum energy?... NOT SURE

Is there any way to hedge the utilities cost against the inflation?...... is
it possible????
Answers to all these questions are in this
pyramid
Forming Total Energy Management Committeeand then follow
Indentifying the opportunities of Energy
Optimization

Understanding the present energy consumption pattern

Prepare Energy Consumption report from previous


Electricity/diesel/LPG/PNG Bills( 1-2 Years)

Prepare a detail area wise load lists indicating its capacities and working
hours of
Plant & Machinery
Equipments
Lighting

And four Questions need to be asked for each item in the


lists

How many and where are the energy consumption


outlets ?
Opportunities of Energy Optimization:

Electric Supply
Electricity Bill
Equipments
Type of Grid Kitchen Equipments
Transformer Laundry Equipments
DG set and AMF Panel Restaurant Equipments

Plant & Machinery


HVAC Lighting
Water treatment Plant Emergency Lighting
Hydro-pneumatic System Back of the House Areas
Hot water Generator Wash rooms
Steam Boiler Front of the House Areas
STP
Electric Supply

Electricity Bill - Read and Understand the electricity Bill in detail

Contract Demand and Maximum Demand KVA. Fix /Minimum Charge

Incentive / Penalty towards Power Factor. Check /Repair the APFC Panel and
ensure that the Power Factor is better than 0.9999.

TOD tariff.

Check if any power restrictions are imposed.


Grid / Feeder Different types- Residential /Commercial /Express

Select the feeder with lesser load shedding hours.

Transformer and its energy losses

Cross Ventilation in the room of transformer

Supply Voltage Variation

To minimize the running hours of DG set due to large supply voltage variation, explore
the possibilities of installing OLTC with RTCC to your existing transformer or replace the
transformer with OLTC and RTCC.

Load Balancing

Check the load currents and ensure that they are uniformly distributed on all the three phases. This
has a potential to minimize the consumption by 2-5%.
DG set and AMF Panel

Check the present capacities of the DG set, Load and Fuel consumption.

It may be any brand or highly fuel efficient DG set- It always consumes more
Diesel at load lesser than its 75-50 % capacity. Install the DG set of smaller
capacity in case required.

For properties having Two or More DG sets.

Install PLC based load managers to minimize undue running of all the DG sets
when not required.

Regular routine maintenance- Air Filter, Oil Filter and Engine Oil.

Power Purchase Agreement

Explore the possibilities of entering into tri party Power Purchase Agreement for
use of renewable energies at cheaper rate.
Plant & Machinery

HVAC systems consume almost 40-60% total electricity.

Hence it is extremely crucial to monitor the system performance very closely for
Energy Optimization.

Water Cooled and Air Cooled Chillers

How to check the chillers are performing at its best of capacity and efficiency ?????

Check the T of the Chillers.


What is this T ?
T = Return water temperature in C - Supply water temperature C

In case this T is less than 5 C for what so ever reason it may be !!!!!

Take it for granted that a huge amount of energy wastage is happening .

Surprisingly, there is no control in the chillers to maintain this T above 5 C.

Then who controls the chiller performance? Chilled Water Pumping System
Chilled water Pumping System

Types of Pumping system


Primary- Single Pump system
Primary & Secondary Pump system

In either of the systems, the pumps perform the function of chilled water
circulation throughout the property for air-conditioning.

T is dependent on this flow and varying heat load in different areas.

The capacity of the pump is decided based on the total TR capacity of the chiller.
Assuming that the Hotels shall fully occupied throughout the year the Pumps and
Chillers both keep on working continuously 24X 7 and a huge opportunity of
minimizing the consumption in absolute terms is lost.

The solution is Flow balancing, deploying VFD to throttle the flow of chilled water
or deploying additional pumps as per the requirement.

This has a great potential of minimizing the electrical consumption towards the
chillers as well as pumps by almost 15-35%.
Condensers

Air cooled Condensers or Water Cooled Condensers

Condensers play an important role in improving the Chiller efficiency and minimizing the energy
consumption.

While the chillers are producing the cooling effect inside the property the condensers are dissipating
heat in the outside environment.

During the Summers Chillers consume more energy and during winter the consumption automatically
drops down without any efforts.

Create a winter environment around the condenser to minimize the energy consumption.
Adiabatic Cooling has the potential to minimize consumption by 5-10%

Air cooled- Install sprinklers


Water Cooled

Regular De-scaling of
Cooling Tower
Condensers
Chiller Operation

Knowing the importance of Chillers to maintain seamless pleasant ambience &


Comfort in the property generally 100% redundancy is provided.
For example:

Chillers: 1 Working + 1 Stand By


Cooling Towers: 1 Working + 1 Stand By
Condenser Pumps: 1 Working + 1 Stand By
Primary Pumps: 1 Working + 1 Stand By
Secondary Pumps: 1 Working + 1 Stand By

Ensure that the valves provided in the piping are opening & closing properly. If
not repair / replace

Close all the valves of above equipments when in Stand By mode to stop
circulation of chilled or condenser water. This has a potential of minimizing
electrical consumption by almost 3-4%
VRV System and Split ACs

.Floor wise Room allocations.


Shutting of the supply to Floor Out door units during lower occupancies.
Control of Room FCUs in vacant rooms.
Adiabatic cooling of condensers and/or protecting the out door units from direct sun light.
AHUs Air Handling Units

AHUs are generally provided for air conditioning of larger areas such as
restaurants, Banquette halls, Lobby etc.

Due to lack of Return Air duct- Huge amount of energy gets wasted.
Different measures to minimize energy consumption due bad
engineering of AHUs and Ducting

Instead of merely running the additional chillers or compressors or


removing the filters from AHUs try this first. ( otherwise any of these acts is
simply wastage of Money !!!!!!)

Remove the obstacles in return air path.


Ensure that there are no leakages in side the false ceiling.
Explore the possibilities of fixing flexible ducts and connect it to AHU.
Provide decorative air circulation ceiling fans in the area.
Explore the possibilities of fixing normal / ducted Split units of capacity
10-25% capacity.
Any other measure as per site condition.
At the time of renovation of the place, provide return air duct.

Opportunities to minimize energy consumption in ideal case

Running the AHU-Blower motor through VFD and throttling the CFM

Throttling the chilled water flow with feed back from Room temperature
Guest room FCUs
Opportunities to minimize energy consumption through Guest Room FCUs

1. Regular Preventive Maintenance

2. Air purging in chilled water piping Daily

3. Room Thermostats: Ensure that room thermostats are functional. In case conventional
electromechanical type thermostats have been provided in the guest rooms, plan for replacing
it with dual set point Digital Thermostats

4. FCUs and Key card Switch.


If guest is not in the room: depending upon the geographical location of the property, seasonal
ambient temperatures and humidity select the most suitable option
a. FCU gets turned OFF while the guest is not in the rooms
b. FCU blower runs at lower speed while guest is not the room
c. Thermostat set point automatically gets shifted to 28-30C while guest is not in the room
Exhaust and Fresh Air systems

Bathroom Exhaust and TFAs for Guest Rooms Important for Guest comfort
Check bathroom Exhaust fans / blowers provided are of adequate capacities. If not check
for leakages if any or increase the capacity.
Check the flow balancing of all diffusers.
Fix the operating hours and follow.
Do not operate Bathroom Exhaust Fans /Blowers without operating TFA. Otherwise it is
total waste of energy.
Install VFDs for optimizing the fan efficiencies.
Air curtains
Provided mainly at the entrance/ exit Door of Kitchens & Receiving areas to
prevent ingress of insects, preventing spreading of food / other unpleasant smells.
Check the Hydraulic Door Closures, Floor Springs of Entry/Exit Doors. If
defective, replace it. Use Door fixtures of good quality, heavy duty, of appropriate
size to minimize frequent failures
Check if Air Curtains are running while the doors are closed. If yes, install door
limit switches to switch OFF air curtains when not required.
Exhaust systems and Air washers for Kitchens
Extremely Important for the comfort of Kitchen Staff
Check whether Exhaust fans / blowers provided are of adequate capacity. If not
check for any leakages otherwise increase the capacity.
Ensure that cold water connections are made and operational.
Check the flow balancing.
Fix the operating hours and follow.
Clean the exhaust hood and ducts once in six months by using steam.
Do not operate Exhaust Fans /Blowers without operating Air washers. It is total
waste of energy.
Provide section wise motorized dampers.
Install VFDs for optimizing the fan /blower efficiencies.
Hydro-pneumatic System - For supply of cold & hot water.

If the pumps in the system are getting frequently turned ON-OFF then check.
Air Pressure in the Vessel.
If you are facing a problem of Hot & Cold water mixing during peak hours
then the vessel capacity is undersized. Need to increase the capacity.
Discuss it with the vendor.
Check the Pumps are operated through VFD- If NOT- then fix the VFD.
Check the type of pressure sensors installed- If the same are ordinary
electromechanical type, check with vendor if the same can be replaced by
electronic pressure sensors.
All these features have the potential to minimize the consumption by 15-
30%.
Hot water Generator

Diesel / LPG/ PNG Fired hot water generators are generally provided. However,
they are no more economical to generate hot water.

Solar with Electric Back up: Generally Solar water heating systems are provided
with electric back up. In order to keep diesel consumption low, there is a tendency
of using electricity when there is no Sun Light. Please discourage the use of
electricity to generate hot water it is no more economical

Solar water heating system requires large space and cannot fulfill the demand
throughout the day.
De-super heaters

Please check if the de-super heaters have been installed on the chiller. If yes, do the needful
plumbing. If no, explore the possibility of fixing new De-super heater on the chillers with chiller
manufacturer or other vendors.

Heat Pumps
Useful in producing the hot water at 25% cost of Electricity / Diesel /PNG/ LPG.

Return Hot water circulation pump


Generally hot water return circulation pump is ON 24 X 7 to ensure that the hot water is instantly
available in the guest rooms. But remember that continuous running of this pump, leads to
significant temperature drop of hot water in Mixing tank ultimately leading to higher diesel
consumption.

Check the flow of the pump and explore the possibilities of throttling it by way of operating the
pump through VFD or re-cyclic timer.

By this way, the electrical consumption by the pump itself and also diesel/ LPG/PNG
consumption can be minimized towards the losses due to continuous circulation.
Steam Boiler - For supply of Steam to Laundry Machines.
Check the capacity of Boiler and steam demand by laundry machines. If the capacity of
the steam boiler is too high, then reduce the capacity of the steam boiler.
Check that separate piping has been provided for High Pressure and Low Pressure
machines in the laundry. If NO, contact the vendor and get it corrected.
Check whether the return condensate pipe is laid without any Ups or downs. If NO,
contact the vendor and get it corrected
Check if the return steam condensate is going in the drain. If YES, please remember that
it is not Steam or Hot water going in the drain. It is hard earned money which is going in
the drain. Install plate heat exchanger and recover the heat to generate hot water at no
extra cost and then use the residual water as feed to water to Boiler.
All these measures have great potential to minimize diesel consumption costs by 15-
40%.
Lighting.

Emergency Lighting:

The electric supply to Emergency lighting is provided through centralized UPS system.
The different lighting fixtures are provided in various areas. The power to these lighting fixtures is
supplied through the main distribution boards. And in most of the properties all these lights are ON 24
X 7. This is total waste of energy.

How to minimize this wastage?

Segregate the emergency lighting in BOH and FOH areas.

For BOH area lighting


Provide contactors or relays in the lighting circuit of BOH areas and interlock it with Mains failure
relaybe it Normal supply or DG set supply. This interlock shall enable to turn ON the lights only
during the phase when there is no power in the property for what so ever reason, saving huge
wastage of energy.

For FOH area lighting


Identify all such lights in FOH areas which are important to maintain intended aesthetics.leave it
the way they are !!!!!
For rest of lights, provide contactors/ relays in the lighting circuit and interlock it with Mains failure
relay..be it Normal supply or DG set supply. This interlock shall enable to turn ON these lights only
during the phase when there is no power in the property for what so ever reason, saving huge
wastage of energy.
Wash rooms - Be it for Guests or for Staff

Install motion sensors for common areas to switch OFF lights automatically when there is
no movement.
Provide individual switches near the doors for WCs & Shower Cubicle's with stickers
Please switch OFF lights after use!

Lighting in BOH areas.

Huge amount of energy is wasted due to improper selection of lighting fixtures, improper
locations and insufficient switches or one common switch for all lights in a specific BOH area.
Reason being lack of co-ordination between Facility Consultant and Electrical Consultant.
This should be avoided.

BOH- Operating Areas such as Stores, Pantries, Cold Kitchens, Butchery, Bakery,
Receiving, Laundry, Cafeteria, Plant Rooms, Electrical Rooms, Offices etc..

Use natural light wherever available and switch on the lights as per requirement.
Check the number of lights provided and relocate them as per the locations of work tables.
Reduce the number of fixtures if possible.
Change the type of fixture in case required.
Increase the number of switches as per the convenience of users.
Install motion sensors for highly busy areas, especially in kitchens.
Front House Areas.

Reception and Lobby, Restaurants, Main porch, Banquette Halls, Meeting Rooms
and Board Rooms , Corridors and Guest Rooms

Most of the energy guzzling lights are provided in these areas.


We can use them conservatively.

How ?????
Consult with concerned lighting designer and inform him the objective .
Or else
Segregate the lighting circuits which are to be turned ON-OFF as per time of
the day and follow the timings
Provide dimmers for creating suitable moods and thus minimize the
consumption.
Make budgetary provisions to replace energy guzzling lights by equivalent LED
lights in due course of time.
Products and Technology which facilitate Energy Optimization.

VFD : Variable Frequency Drive

Smooth start of Induction Motor hence no in-rush current.


Minimizes KVA demand.
Increases the power factor & efficiency of the Motor.
Minimizes consumption by 10% by default.
Speed of the motor can be controlled and thus it controls Flow of Pumps, Blowers
minimizing consumption by 10-50%.

De-super Heaters
One of the attachments of Chillers / Split ACs.
Useful in producing Hot water FREE of cost while Chiller, Split AC are in operation.
Also improves efficiency of the Chiller ,Split AC and Cold Rooms.
Heat Pumps

It is an equipment similar to the Out Door unit of SPLIT AC.

Useful in producing hot water at 25% cost of Electricity / Diesel /PNG/


LPG.

Plate Heat Exchangers:

Useful to recover the heat and to produce Hot water or Cold water free
of cost.

Can replace the water cooler where chilled water supply is available for
cooling other areas.

Occupies very little floor space.


Flow Restrictors

Very useful in minimizing water consumption

Sprinklers and Green Mesh

Useful to produce mist effect to reduce surrounding ambient temperature of Air


Cooled Chillers or Split ACs which in turn can minimize the consumption by 5-10%.

Green Mesh to protect the outdoor units of ACs, Cold Rooms, Split ACs from direct
sun light which can minimize the consumption by 5%.
APFC Panels:

For power factor improvement to minimize the KVA demand.

Most important where electricity is billed on KVAH basis.

Motion Sensors:

To switch OFF lights automatically when not required.

CFLs and LEDs: